Table 3

Overview of included original publications reporting on biomechanical aspects of concussion*

Authors,  year publishedTimes cited (Google) Times cited (Web of Science) Study designInvestigated sportsLevel of playPlayers (n), age, gender (F/M/B)Recording systemImpacts/concussionsParameters assessedConcussion definition usedDiagnosed byNotes
Duma et al, 200548 250144Prospective, observationalAmerican footballCollege38, NR, MHITS3312/1Linear/rotational acc, Δ head vel. GSI, HICNRNR
Guskiewicz et al, 200720 248145Prospective, observationalAmerican footballCollege88, 20.2±1.8 years, MHITS1 04 714/13Linear/rotational accOwn definitionTeam physician
Greenwald et al, 200849 245158Prospective, observationalAmerican footballNCAA division I schools/high schools449, NR, MHITS289 916/17Linear/rotational acc, GSI, HICAANMedical staff (not specified)
Rowson et al, 201250 16385Prospective, observationalAmerican footballCollege335, NR, MHITS (n=314); custom 6-DOF sensors (n=21)301 034/57Rotational accCISGMedical staff (not specified)
Broglio et al, 201051 13979Prospective, observationalAmerican footballHigh school78, 16.7±0.8 years, MHITS54 247/13Linear/rotational acc,AANCertified AT, physician
Schnebel et al, 200752 13679Prospective, observationalAmerican footballCollege/high school56, NR, MHITS54 154/6Linear accNRNR
McIntosh et al, 200021 10072RetrospectiveRugby, Australian rules footballProfessionals100, NR, MVideo100/100Head impact dynamicsNR
Brolinson et al, 200653 92NAProspective, observationalAmerican footballCollege52, NR, MHITS11 604/3Linear accNRMedical staff (not specified)
McAllister et al, 201254 7645Prospective, observationalAmerican football, ice hockeyCollege/high school10, NR, MHITS10/10Linear/rotational accOwn definitionCertified AT, physician
Funk et al, 201255 7237Prospective, observationalAmerican footballCollege98, NR, MHITS37 128/4Linear acc, HICNRAT, physician
Duhaime et al, 201256 5935Prospective, observationalAmerican football, ice hockeyCollege450, NR, BHITS486 594/48§Linear/rotational accNRCertified AT, physician
Broglio et al, 201143 4527Prospective, observationalAmerican footballHigh school95, NR, MHITS102 218/20Linear/rotational acc, HITspAANCertified AT, physician
Beckwith et al, 201340 3924Prospective, observationalAmerican footballCollege/high school1208, NR, MHITS161 732/105Linear/rotational acc, Δ head vel. GSI, HICNRAT, physicianThis dataset has previously been reported by Beckwith et al 2013.42 To avoid duplicity, this study has been removed from the analysis.
Duma and Rowson, 200957 265Prospective, observationalAmerican footballCollegeNR, NR, MHITS71 300/6Linear accNRTeam physician
King et al, 201558 238Prospective, observationalRugbyAmateur38, 22±4 years, MInstrumented mouthguard (custom-built 6-DOF sensor)20 689/2Linear/rotational accNRMedical staff (not specified)
McIntosh et al, 201441 194Prospective, observationalRugby and Australian rules footballProfessionals40, NR, MRigid body simulations, data from video40/27Linear/rotational accNRNRThe 27 cases with concussion were taken from a larger sample previously published.21 Preliminary analyses of the 27 cases were provided by Frechede and McIntosh 2009 24 and Patton et al 2013.22
Hernandez et al, 201559 174Prospective, observationalAmerican football, boxing, MMACollege/professional33, NR, BCustom 6-DOF acc device513/218 different parametersNRNR
Wilcox et al, 201560 74Prospective, observationalIce hockeyCollege58, NR, FHITSNR/9Linear/rotational acc, HITspOwn definitionCertified AT, physician
Beckwith et al, 200961 6NAProspective, observationalAmerican footballCollege/high school52, 18.9±2.3 years, MHITS71 390/52Linear/rotational GSI, HIC15AANMedical staff (not specified)While this study included 901 players, this manuscript only reports on the 52 players with concussion.
  • AAN, American Academy of Neurology; acc, acceleration; AT, athletic trainer; B, both gender; CISG, Concussion in Sports Group; DOF, degrees-of-freedom; F, females; GSI, Gadd Severity Index; HIC, Head Injury Criterion; HITS, Head Impact Telemetry System; HITsp, Head Impact Technology severity profile; M, males; MMA, mixed martial arts; NA, not available; NCAA, National Collegiate Athletic Association; NR, not reported.

  • *Studies are presented according to the number of citations in Google Scholar (in descending order).

  • †Accessed on 19 October 2016 (

  • ‡Service provided by Web of Science, Thomson Reuters. Accessed on 19 October 2016.

  • §Detailed numbers on the 48 concussions recorded: American football (n=40), women’s ice hockey (n=7) and men’s ice hockey (n=1).