Table 5

Survey on studies reporting on neurocognitive testing (n=30)

DomainExecutive functionMotor skillsMemory and learningVisual spatial skillsLanguageAttention
Studies, n294 7 15 16 19 21–23 25 29 30 32–36 41–43 46–48 50 52 53 56–59 244 15 16 19 21–23 25 29 30 32 33 35 36 41 42 46–48 52 53 56–58 304 7 15 16 19 21–23 25 29 30 32–36 41–43 45–47 50 52 53 56–59 37 25 59 47 30 58 59 264 7 15 16 19 21–23 25 29 30 32–36 42 43 46 50 52 53 56–59
Test categories, n8683213
Postinjury test categoriesANAM, CANTAB, CogSport, ImPACT,
DSST, SAC, SCWT, TMT
CANTAB, ImPACT,
DSST, HCRI, SAC, VMRT
ANAM, CANTAB, CogSport, ImPACT,
DST, DSST, HVLT, SAC
BVMT-R, VMRT, PSCTCOWAT,
COWF
ANAM, CANTAB, CogSport, ImPACT,
DST, FCRT, HCRI, PASAT, RT, SDMT, SRT, TMT, VCPT
Studies with baseline tests,* n (%)25 (86.2)4 7 16 19 21–23 29 30 32–34 36 41–43 46–48 50 52 56–59 20 (83.3)4 16 19 21–23 29 30 32 33 36 41 42 46–48 52 56–58 25 (83.3)4 7 16 19 21–23 29 30 32–34 36 41–43 46–48 50 52 56–59 2 (66.7)7 59 4 (100)7 30 58 59 22 (84.6)4 7 16 19 21–23 29 30 32–34 36 42 43 46 50 52 56–59
Differences, when compared concussed to baseline,* n (%)
  • Significant (p<0.05)

  • Not significant (p>0.05)

 ­
5 (20.0)
5 (20.0)
 ­
2 (10.0)
1 (5.0)
17 (85.0)
 ­
8 (32.0)
2 (8.0)
16 (64.0)
 ­
0
1 (50.0)
1 (50.0)
 ­
0
1 (25.0)
3 (75.0)
 ­
8 (36.4)
3 (13.6)
11 (50.0)
  • Not specified

15 (60.0)
Studies with control group(s), n (%)11 (37.9)7 19 22 25 29 43 46 53 57 58 9 (37.5)19 22 25 29 46 48 53 57 58 12 (40.0)7 19 22 25 29 43 45 46 53 57 58 2 (66.7)7 25 2 (50.0)7 58 10 (38.5)7 19 22 25 29 43 46 53 57 58
Differences, when compared concussed to controls,* n [%]
  • Significant (p<0.05)

  • Not significant (p>0.05)

  • Not specified

 ­
6 (54.5)
0
5 (45.5)
 ­
3 (33.3)
0
6 (66.7)
 ­
7 (58.3)
1 (8.3)
5 (41.7)
 ­
0
0
2 (100.0)
 ­
0
0
2 (100.0)
 ­
5 (50.0)
2 (20.0)
4 (40.0)
Looking at specific features,† n64 15 19 36 42 57 64 15 19 36 42 57 54 15 19 36 42 0064 15 19 36 42 57
  • *Due to different results in different test categories, the total number of studies reporting on differences can be higher than the total number of studies with baseline testing.

  • †Fogginess,’42 ‘Simple’ versus ‘complex’ concussion,4 ‘Near point convergence,’15 ‘Symptomatic versus asymptomatic,’19 57 ‘Long versus short recovery.’36

  • ANAM, Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics; BVMT-R, Brief Visual Spatial Memory Test; CANTAB, Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery; CogSport, CogSport Ltd, Melbourne, Australia; COWAT; Controlled Oral Word Association Test; COWF, Controlled Oral Word Fluency; DSST, Digit Symbol Substitution Test; DST, Digit Span Test; FCRT, Four Choice Reaction Time; HCRI, HeadMinder Concussion Resolution Index; HVLT, Hopkins Verbal Learning Test; ImPACT, Immediate Post Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing; PASAT, Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test; PSCT, Penn State Cancellation Test; RT, Reaction Time; SAC, Standardised Assessment of Concussion; SCWT, Stroop Colour-Word Test; SDMT, Symbol Digit Modalities Test; SRT, Simple Reaction Time; TMT, Trail Making Test; VCPT, Vigil Continuous Performance Test; VMRT, Visuomotor Reaction Time.

  • 42 ,4 ,15 ,19 57 ,36