Table 4

Key aspects of studies reporting on the biomechanics of concussion (only studies using HITS)

Authors, year publishedSports investigatedImpacts on days with concussion (mean±1 SD, range)Mean peak values in concussed players (±1 SD, range)Location of head impact (n)
Linear acc (g) Rotational acc (rad/s2) Front Top Side Back All
HITS technology used for data acquisition (n=15)
Duma et al, 200548 American footballNR81.0 (NR)NR00101
Guskiewicz et al, 200720 American footballNR102.8±30.7 (60.51–168.71)5312±3950 (NR)NRNRNRNR13
Greenwald et al, 200849 American footballNRNRNR835117
Rowson et al, 201250 American footballNRNR5022±1791 (NR)33 (including back)177Pooled with front57
Broglio et al, 201051 American footballNR105±18 (NR)7230±1158 (NR)822113
Schnebel et al, 200752 American football34±24 (NR)127.0±25.5 (81.9–145.7)NRNRNRNRNR6
Brolinson et al, 200653 American footballNR103.3±42.3 (NR)NR10113
McAllister et al, 201254 American football, ice hockeyNR73.6±21.3 (NR)5025±1226 (NR)NRNRNRNR10
Funk et al, 201255 American footballNR145±35 (NR)NRNRNRNRNR4
Duhaime et al, 201256 American football, ice hockey19.5±15.7 (NR)86.1±42.6 (16.5–177.9)* 3620±2166 (183–7589)* 1395835
Broglio et al, 201143 American football25.0±18.3 (NR)93.6±27.5 (NR)6402.6±17 530.9 (NR)1135120
Beckwith et al, 201340 American football25.8±22.7 (1–108)102.5±33.8 (29.3–205.3)3977±2272 (183 –10 484)48261714105
Duma and Rowson, 200957 American footballNR132.3±49.8 (NR)NRNRNRNRNR6
Wilcox et al, 201560 Ice hockeyNR43.0±11.5 (NR)4030±1435 (NR)NRNRNRNR9
Beckwith et al, 200961 American footballNR107±31 (NR)7079±3408 (NR)281211455
All studies 151 (49.0) 73 (23.7) 54 (17.5) 30 (9.7) 350
Instrumented mouthguard with custom-built 6-DOF sensor used for data acquisition (n=2)
King et al, 201558 RugbyNR74.9±28.2 (NR)7627.5±3263.6 (NR)NRNRNRNR2
Hernandez et al, 201559 American football, boxing, MMANR95.5±14.8 (85–106)9565±3571 (7040–12 090)NRNRNRNR2
Video-based analyses (n=1)
McIntosh et al, 200021 Rugby, Australian rules footballNRNRNR19 0671197
McIntosh et al, 201441 Rugby, Australian rules footballNR103.4±29.5 (NR)7951±3562 (NR)7§ 018227
  • *Calculations based on those 31 concussions with an identified single impact leading to symptoms. For impact location, 35 concussions were considered.

  • †This includes nine concussions to the face.

  • ‡Impact location was not reported in three players.

  • §This includes three concussions to the face.

  • ¶This study provides a more detailed analysis of the biomechanical aspects in a subset of concussed players previously published.21 Note that the impact location has already been reported by the previous study.

  • Acc, acceleration; HITS, Head Impact Telemetry System; MMA, mixed martial arts; NR, not reported.