Table 3

Summary information on included prospective studies

Studies,
n (%)
Total number of athletes,
n (%)
Number of athletes in studies (n=8) with exclusively American football players, n (%)4 16 36 40 47 56 58 59 Number of athletes in studies including exclusively male,
n (%)4 16 22 25 35 36 40 43 45–47 53 56–59
Total334 7 15 16 19–23 25 29 30 32–36 40–48 50 52 53 56–59 2416628 (26.0)881 (36.5)
Mean age in years274 15 16 19–21 23 25 29 32 34 36 40–44 46–48 50 52 53 56–59 17.4*±4.617.0±1.418.4±2.2
Sports
 American football19 (57.6)4 7 16 19 21 23 29 30 34 36 40–42 47 48 52 56 58 59 1191 (49.3)628 (71.3)
 Rugby3 (9.1)35 48 53 119 (4.9)111 (12.6)
 Australian rules football6 (18.2)22 25 43 45 46 57 142 (5.9)142 (16.1)
 Football (soccer)11 (33.3)7 19 21 23 29 30 34 41 42 48 52 85 (3.5)NA
 Ice hockey4 (12.1)7 23 33 48 29 (1.2)NA
 Basketball8 (24.2)7 19 21 29 30 42 48 52 53 (2.2)NA
 Other sports14 (42.4)15 19–21 23 29 30 32 41 42 44 48 50 52 797 (33.0)NA
Level of play
 High-school/college19 (57.6)4 7 15 19–21 23 29 32 36 40–44 47 52 56 58 1961 (81.2)524 (83.4)553 (62.8)
 University3 (9.1)33 34 48 52 (2.2)
 Amateur3 (9.1)25 46 53 55 (2.3]55 (6.2)
 Professional6 (18.2)22 35 45 46 57 59 264 (10.9)95 (15.1)264 (30.0)
 Not specified2 (6.1)16 30 84 (3.5)9 (1.4)9 (1.0)
Who made the diagnosis of SRC?
 Athletic trainer5 (15.2)4 25 30 36 56 58 426 (17.6)418 (66.6)426 (48.4)
 Certified trainer7 (21.2)19 29 32 41 42 44 47 899 (37.2)91 (14.5)91 (10.3)
 Team medical staff9 (27.3)7 16 22 45 46 50 52 53 57 525 (21.7)9 (1.4)160 (18.2)
 Team physician5 (15.2)21 35 40 43 48 184 (7.6)15 (2.4)109 (12.4)
 Physician4 (12.1)20 30 33 34 105 (4.3)
 Neuropsychologist1 (3.0)59 95 (3.9)95 (15.1)95 (10.8)
 Not specified2 (6.1)15 23 182 (7.5)
Where was the diagnosis made?
 Sideline19 (57.6)4 7 16 19 21 25 29 32 33 36 40–44 47 52 56 58 1539 (63.7)533 (84.9)570 (64.7)
 Clinical setting2 (6.1)20 35 75 (3.1)65 (7.4)
 Not specified12 (36.4)15 16 22 23 30 34 45 46 48 50 53 57 59 802 (33.2)95 (15.1)246 (27.9)
When did the ‘first’ evaluation took place?
 Immediately19 (57.6)4 7 21 25 30 32–36 40–43 47 52 56–58 1236 (51.2)524 (83.4)687 (78.0)
 <24 hours1 (3.0)16 9 (0.4)9 (1.4)9 (1.0)
 24 to 48 hours2 (6.1)19 29 244 (10.1)
 >48 hours4 (12.1)20 44 46 53 322 (13.3)52 (5.9)
Not specified (declared as FU examination)7 (21.2)605 (25.0)95 (15.1)133 (15.1)
 <24 hours148
 >24 to 48 hours322
 >48 hours315
Baseline tests
 Neurocogitive testing24 (72.7)4 7 16 19 21–23 29 30 32–34 36 41–43 46–48 50 52 56–59 1896 (78.5)613 (97.6)719 (81.6)
 Balance8 (24.2)20 30 33 40 41 48 50 58 617 (25.5)118 (17.4)109 (12.4)
Ocular motor function2 (6.1)15 16 87 (3.6)9 (1.4)9 (1.0)
  • *Mean age was calculated based on the information on mean age and SD and in relation to total number of athletes included in each study (all: n=23 studies); AF, n=7 studies; male: n=12 studies, 10 studies did not provide full information.

  • AF, American football; FU, follow-up; NA, not available; SRC, sport-related concussion.