(B) Treatment of persistent symptoms following SRC.
StudyStudy designTreatment modalitySetting (country)ParticipantsControls or comparison group (n)Duration of symptoms
nSexAge (mean(SD) years)Sport
Moser et al (2012)36 Case seriesRestSports concussion clinic (USA)136M:7F15.8 (2.7)Ice hockey, lacrosse, soccer, basketball, footballNil>31 days
Moser et al (2015)33 Case seriesRestSports concussion centre (USA)137M:6F15.1 (1.5)Basketball, football, ice hockey, lacrosse, soccer snowboardingNilInformation not supplied
Gagnon et al (2009)16 Case seriesSubsymptom threshold activityPaediatric hospital based concussion clinic (Canada)1611M:5F14.3 (2.3)Rugby, football, soccer, hockey, other (also includes two non-SRC)Nil>4 weeks
Gagnon et al (2016)17 Case seriesSubsymptom threshold activityPaediatric hospital based concussion clinic (Canada)107M:3F16.3 (1.3)Football, soccer, basketball, hockey, snowboardingNil>3 weeks
Leddy et al (2010)23 Case seriesSubsymptom threshold activityUniversity-based concussion clinic (USA)127M:5F27.9 (14.3)Mixed (SRC and non-SRC), no details on sportNil>6 weeks (and <52 weeks)
Leddy et al (2013)24 Quasi experimentalSubsymptom threshold activityUniversity-based concussion clinic (USA)84M:4FExercise group: 25.8 (6.1); stretching group: 23.2 (6.2)Mixed (SRC and non-SRC), no details on sport4>6 weeks (and <52 weeks)
Kurowski et al (2016)21 RCTSubsymptom threshold activityCommunity-based head injury clinics and emergency departments (USA)3013M:17FExercise group 15.2 (1.4); stretching group 15.5 (1.8)Mixed (SRC and non-SRC), no details on sport15>4 weeks
Hugentobler et al (2015)34 Case seriesPhysical therapy Paediatric hospitalbasedphysical therapy clinic (USA)64M:2F17.0 (1.7)Ice hockey, lacrosse, soccer, swimming, danceNil19–192 days
Schneider et al (2014)11 RCTPhysical therapyUniversity-based sports medicine centre (Canada)3118M:13FTreatment group (n=15): age range 12–27 yearsNo details on sport16>10 days
McCarty et al (2016)20 RCTCollaborative care including CBTPaediatric hospitalbased concussion clinic4917M:32FTreatment group (n=25): 15.1 (1.6) yearsMixed (SRC and non-SRC), no details on sport24>1 month
Sohlberg and Ledbetter (2015)25 Case seriesSpeech pathologyUniversity-based speech-language clinic (USA)2410M:14F17.5 (3.2)Basketball, cheerleading, cycling, dancing, football, long board, pole vaulting, softball, soccerNil>2 months
Reddy et al (2013)18 Historical cohortAmantadineUniversity-based sports medicine concussion programme (USA)2511M:14F15.7 (1.4)No details on sport25>21 days
Dubrovsky et al (2014)35 Case seriesNerve blocks for persistent headachePaediatric hospitalbased concussion clinic (Canada)286M:22F14.6 (1.7)Mixed (SRC and non-SRC), no details on sportNilAverage time from injury to treatment=70 (±54.2) days
Bramley et al (2015)19 Case seriesAmitriptyline for persistent headacheUniversity hospitalbased concussion clinic (USA)400248M:152F13–18 yearsMixed (SRC and non-SRC), no details on sportNil>1 month