Table 2

Details of included MRI studies

Author, yearAdditional informationSexAgeN (knees)Diagnostic criteriaIsolated PF OA (%)Combined (%)Unclear PF OA (%)FeatureCase definition
OverallMedialLateralPF + TF OAOverallMedialLateral
Community-based population
Ding86 2005<45 yearsFM<451670–4 scale16Cartilage defect≥2
>45 yearsFM≥4520538Cartilage defect≥2
Gross39 2012 FOA cohortFM64±9985 (1159)WORMS5018Cartilage damage≥2
Stefanik95 2013FOA cohortFM64±8970WORMS2044Cartilage damage≥2
Wang99 2015TASOAC cohortFM62±7904WORMS19BML≥1
40Cartilage defect≥2
Healthy individuals
Sharma92 2014OAI cohortM60±9375MOAKS2533Cartilage damage>0
F60±9474MOAKS3430Cartilage damage>0
Wang100 2012FM42±7380–4 scale3Cartilage defect≥2
Knee pain or symptomatic population
Amin Baker79 2009 BOKS cohortM68±9154WORMS8168Maximal cartilage morphology≥2
F64±9111WORMS9184Maximal cartilage morphology≥2
Amin Goggins80 2008 Heavy lifting (BOKS cohort)M69±940WORMS60Cartilage morphology≥2
Occupational exposuresM64±947WORMS72Cartilage morphology≥2
No heavy lifting/occupational exposuresM70±998WORMS47Cartilage morphology≥2
Amin Guermazi81 2008BOKS cohortFM67±9265WORMS91Cartilage morphology≥2
Cai82 2015Anhui osteoarthritis cohortFM56±121740–4 scale82Cartilage damage≥2
FM0–3 scale52BML≥1
Crema84 2014FM58±101630–3 scale13BML≥1
Peterfy90 2004FM61±819WORMS94Cartilage abnormality≥1
Tsavalas97 2012Various knee-related clinical conditionsFM≤50315ICRS5Cartilage lesion≥2
FM>50200ICRS33Cartilage lesion≥2
Radiographic knee OA or high risk of knee OA
Gross 201239 MOST cohortFM62±81381 (1621)WORMS6936Cartilage damage≥2
Stefanik Gross 201595 (O&C)MOST cohortFM69±81137WORMS221363BML≥1
Stefanik Gross94 2015 (ACR)MOST cohortF66±8653 (2594)WORMS51Cartilage damage≥2
M66±8400 (1486)WORMS43Cartilage damage≥2
Runhaar91 2014F56±3348 (529)MOAKS443518BML≥1
348 (467)474218Cartilage defect≥1
348 (408)332725Osteophytes≥1
OverallMedialLateralPF + TF OAOverallMedialLateral
Radiographic and symptomatic OA
Chan25 1991FM58200–3 scale075Cartilage loss≥1
Post-traumatic population
Culvenor85 2015ACLR with or without meniscus repairFM30±8111MOAKS1223BML≥1
Van Meer98 2016ACL ruptureFM25±33143MOAKS29Osteophytes≥1
Wang100 2012Arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy (2 years post)FM43±5630–4 scale19Cartilage defect≥2
General population
Gross87 2011Framingham Heart study offsprings + spouses and people from Framingham townFM64±91094WORMS58Cartilage damage≥2
109642Cartilage damage≥2
Hayes88 2005With or without pain or OAF46±1117 (232)Modified Nayes arthroscopy
66Cartilage defect≥IIA
Kornaat89 200540–70 years with familial generalised OAFM60 (43–77)205KOSS66Cartilage defect≥1
Sowers93 2011Middle-aged womenF56±5360 (724)89Cartilage defect
OverallMedialLateralPF + TF OAOverallMedialLateral
Sowers93 2011Middle-aged womenF56±5360 (724)56Osteophytes
Teng96 2015Without no OA or isolated OAFM51±1061WORMS46Cartilage lesion>1
  • Where possible, age is presented as mean±SD or mean (range).

  • ∗Studies included in subgroup analyses.

  • †Percentage based on regions.

  • ACLR, ACL reconstruction; BOKS, Boston Knee Osteoarthritis Study; BML, bone marrow lesion; F, female; FM, both female and male; FOA, Framingham Osteoarthritis; ICRS, International Cartilage Repair Society; KOSS; Knee Osteoarthritis Scoring System; M, male; MOAKS, MRI Osteoarthritis Knee Score; MOST, Multicenter Knee Osteoarthritis; PF OA, patellofemoral osteoarthritis; OA, osteoarthritis; OAI, Osteoarthritis Initiative; TASOAC, Tasmanian Older Adult Cohort. WORMS, Whole-organ MRI Score.