Table 2

Hierarchies of outcome measures

Hierarchy of outcome measures
  • Pain with activity

  • Pain at night

  • Global pain

  • Pain at rest

  • Pain subscales of composite scales

    • Pain subscale of SPADI

    • Other

  • Pain unspecified

Overall function (activity limitations or participation restrictions)
  • Mean of several function scores, if mean and SD calculated in study

  • Disability subscale of SPADI (if available; else total score)

  • Constant-Murley Total Score

  • Disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (DASH)

  • Oxford Shoulder Scale

  • University of California Los Angeles Shoulder Rating Scale (UCLA)

  • Shoulder Disability Questionnaire (SDQ)

  • American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons standardised shoulder assessment form (ASES)

  • Shoulder Function Assessment (SFA)

  • Short Form¬†Functioning and other Algofunctional Scale

  • Patients global assessments

  • Physicians global assessments

Active range of motion (AROM)
  • Active abduction

  • Active flexion

  • Active external rotation

  • SPADI,¬†Shoulder Pain and Disability Index.