Table 2

Summary of included studies

Study and locationSample sizeRecruitment and incentives to participateAge of high-performance athletesLevel of ‘high-performance’ athleticismNon-athlete populationType of sportDepressive symptom measure and data collectionPrevalence of at least mild depressive symptoms
Brand et al, 2013; Germanyn=1218; 475–480 high-performance athletes male, 249–251 non-athlete male; 297–301 high-performance athletes female, 180–181 non-athlete femaleThrough school enrolment.
No information reported about incentives.
Range: 12–15 yearsHigh-performance student athletesStudents who attended schools ‘showing no extraordinary form of sport programming’Artistic gymnastics, boxing, canoe/kayak, cycling, handball, judo, modern pentathlon, rowing, shooting, soccer, swimming, track and field athletics, triathlon, volleyball, weightlifting, wrestlingComposite International Diagnostic-Screener.27
Questionnaires administered by schoolteachers.
High-performance athletes male=19.3%, non-athlete male=18.7%; high-performance athlete female=36.5%, non-athletes female=42.2%
Ghaedi et al, 2014; Irann=340; 90 high-performance athletes male, 90 non-athlete male; 80 high-performance athlete female, 80 non-athlete femaleThrough university enrolment.
No information reported about incentives.
M=21.45 years (SD=1.66)Athlete undergraduate studentsNon-athlete college studentsUnknownBeck Depression Inventory-II,25 scores 11 or higher were considered clinically significant.
Questionnaires administered in two departments of a private university.
High-performance athletes male=26.7%, non-athlete male=34.4%; high-performance athlete female=31.3%, non-athletes female=42.5%
Junge and Feddermann-Demont, 2016; Switzerlandn=1300; 182 high-performance athletes male, 73 U-21 high-performance athletes, 394 non-athlete male; 177 high-performance athlete female, 474 non-athlete femaleThrough the Swiss Concussion Project.
No information reported about incentives.
M=24.81 years (SD=2.27) (high-performance males)
M=18.35 years (SD=1.18) (U-21)
M=20.95 years (SD=3.76) (high-performance females)
First league and U-21General population in Germany, 18–92 years of ageFootball (soccer)Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale,26 scores 16 or higher were considered clinically significant.
Questionnaires administered through the Swiss Concussion Project.
High-performance athletes male=6.6%, U-21 athlete male=15.1%, non-athlete male=7.9%; high-performance athlete female=13.0%, non-athletes female=14.3%
Proctor and Boan-Lenzo, 2010; United Statesn=117; 66 high-performance athlete male, 51 non-athlete maleThrough university enrolment.
No information reported about incentives.
M=20.3 years (SD=2.03); range=18–31 yearsDivision-I, intercollegiate team sport athletesNon-athlete college studentsBaseballCenter for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale,26 scores 16 or higher were considered clinically significant.
Questionnaires were administered by coaches and professors.
High-performance athletes=15.6%, non-athlete=29.4%
Storch et al, 2005; USAn=398; 54 high-performance athletes male, 79 non-athlete male; 51 high-performance athlete female, 214 non-athlete femaleThrough university enrolment.
No incentives provided.
M=20.9 years (SD=3.0); range=17–41 yearsDivision-I, intercollegiate team sport athletesNon-athlete college studentsSoccer, volleyball, basketball, swimming, tennis, footballDepression subscale of the scales of the Personality Assessment Inventory,28 scores over 32 were considered clinically significant.
Questionnaires were administered by coaches and professors.
High-performance athletes male=3.7%, non-athlete male=7.6%; high-performance athlete female=9.8%, non-athletes female=6.1%