Table 5

Checklist for reporting estimates of the economic costs/burden of risk factors*

Section/itemItem no.RecommendationReported on page no./line no.
Title and abstract
Title 1Identify the study as an estimate of the economic burden of a risk factor (ie, physical activity) and identify the study sample
Abstract 2Provide a summary of objectives, perspective, setting, methods (including study design and inputs), results, including statistical uncertainty, and sensitivity analysis (changes in key structural assumptions) and conclusions
Background and objectives 3Provide an explicit statement of the study objective(s) and broader context for the study. Present the study question and its relevance for health policy or practice decisions. Describe whether previous estimates existed for the same risk factor among the same (or comparable) populations
Target population and
 4Describe characteristics of the study sample/population. If subsamples/populations are chosen, provide justification of why and how they are chosen
Setting and location 5State relevant aspects of the system(s) in which the decision(s) need(s) to be made. Define decision maker(s) that the study is intended to inform
Study perspective 6Describe the perspective of the study, ensure this is consistent with the study objective(s) and aligned with the categories of costs/burden being evaluated
The risk factor(s) 7Define the risk factor(s) (eg, physical inactivity), how the risk factor is measured (eg, questionnaire), the reliability and validity of the measurement instrument, the minimal risk counterfactual and the rationale for selecting the counterfactual or categories (eg, meeting physical activity recommendations)
Choice of health outcomes 8Define the health outcomes associated with the risk factor(s), the rationale for selecting the outcomes (eg, evidence on the risk factor–outcome associations), describe whether comorbidity is taken into account
Costs/burden estimated 9Define the costs/burden estimated (eg, healthcare expenditure, productivity losses) and the estimates included (eg, inpatient and outpatient care)
Data sources10Describe the sources of data, the years the data cover and any major caveats/limitations related to the data, if any
Time frame11State the time frame over which costs/burden are considered (eg, single year, patient lifetime) and explain why it is appropriate
Discount rate(s)12Report the choice of the discount rate(s) used for costs/burden and explain why this choice is appropriate
Year of reporting and common unit of measure for costs/burden13Report the year that the estimates refer to and the common unit of measure used to collate costs/burden (eg, for costs state the currency, and for burden state the health measure, such as disability adjusted life years. If relevant, describe methods for converting costs into a common currency and year of reporting (eg, inflation rates, purchasing power parity conversion factors)
Analytic methods and assumptions made14
Describe the overall analytical approach (eg, population attributable fraction (PAF) approach and econometric approach). Describe all assumptions, such as rationale for choice of model, statistical distribution and any other major assumptions (eg, missing data imputation)
For study using a PAF approach, report where the PAF was derived, whether PAF was based on adjusted or crude relative risk
For study using an econometric approach, report the study design (eg, prospective, cross-sectional), statistical models and covariates adjusted
Costs/burden estimates15Report the values (eg, mean) and associated statistical distributions/ranges for all parameters. If secondary data is used, reference appropriately. A bespoke table transparently reporting all input values (from methods) and outputs (from results) is strongly recommended
Characterising uncertainty16If applicable, describe the effects of sampling uncertainty (statistical sensitivity analysis) on results and structural uncertainty in changing methodological assumptions (eg, study perspective, model choice and discount rates)
Characterising heterogeneity17If applicable, report differences in costs and/or other outcomes that can be explained by variations between subgroups with different baseline characteristics or other observed variability in effects that are not reducible by more information
Source of funding18Describe how the study was funded and the role of the funder in the identification, design, conduct and reporting of the analysis
Describe other non-monetary sources of support
Conflict(s) of interest19Describe any potential for conflict of interest among study contributors in accordance with journal policy. In the absence of a journal policy, we recommend authors to comply with International Committee of Medical Journal Editors’ recommendations
  • *Checklist adapted from the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS).