Table 2

Levels of evidence and the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scores for all included studies

PaperYearLevel of evidenceTotal PEDro score1234567891011
Barbic et al1520051b61111111
Benson et al1619992b411111
Collins et al1720062b31111
Hollis et al2220092b31111
Kemp et al2320082b31111
Kerr et al1820152b411111
Labella et al2620022b2111
Marshall et al2420052b31111
McGuine et al1920142b31111
McIntosh and McCrory2520091b5111111
Stuart et al2820022b2111
Thompson et al1419963b31111
Winters and DeMont2120142b31111
Wisniewski et al2720042b31111
  • The PEDro scale is optimal for evaluating randomised controlled trials; therefore, it should be interpreted with caution in the studies included here as many are non-randomised. (1) Eligibility criteria specified; (2) random allocation of participants; (3) allocation concealed; (4) similar groups at baseline; (5) blinding of participants; (6) blinding of intervention providers; (7) blinding of outcome assessors; (8) outcomes obtained from 85% of participants; (9) use of intent-to-treat analysis if protocol violated; (10) between-group statistical comparison; (11) point measures and measures of variability.

  • A ‘1’ indicates a ‘yes’ score and a ‘–’ indicates a ‘no’ score. Note that item (1) is not utilised in calculating the total PEDro score.