Table 4

Results of included studies

Authors, study type, CASP score (%)PopulationGroin injuriesHip ROMInjury analysisRe-injuryOutcomesConclusion
Non-injured players n ageInjured players n/% ageInjuries nInjured hips n/total %Per hip/per playerData presented PS, AH or BHReported/statistical check or correctionMean (SD) values for injured/non-injured hip ROM of hips (of players), p value and OR, relative risk (95% CI) with p valueMean differenceROM risk factor or different
Arnason et al26
PC, 92%
294
24.0 (NR)
17/6
NR
3213/498
3
1. ABD
2. EXT
Hips of I vs NI playersAHY / Y1. 40.9 (1.1)°/43.4 (0.2)°, p=0.08. OR 0.90 (95% CI 0.80 to 1.0, p=0.05)
2. 179.0 (0.3)°/176.5 (1.4)°, p=0.14. OR/RR: NR
1. 3°
2. 3°
1. Y
2. N
Verrall et al30
PC, 92%
29
21.4 (NR)
4/14
NR
NRNR
NR
1. IR
2. ER
3. Bilateral TR
Hips of I vs NI players1. AH
2. AH
3. BH
N / N1. 15.5 (2.1)/15.5 (1.3)° vs 21.8 (1.3)/20.8 (1.1)°, p=0.07/p=0.07. OR/RR:NR
2. 28.1 (1/9)/24.0 (1.4)° vs 30.7 (1.0)/29.9 (1.0)°, p=0.33/p=0.04. OR/RR:NR
3. 83.1 (4.3)°/103.2 (3.3)°, p=0.03. RR 0.90 (95% CI 0.83 to 0.99, p=0.03), robust SE 0.04, Z score −2.14
1. 6°
2. 5°
3. 20°
1. N
2. N
3. Y
Engebretsen et al19
PC, 77%
506
23.9 (±0.2)
51/10
24.8 (0.6)
6155/1016
5
1. IR
2. ER
3. FL
4. EXT
5. ABD
Hips of I vs NI playersPSN / N1. 27.5 (2.0)°/29.8 (0.5)°, p=NR. OR 1.06 (95% CI 0.77 to 1.44, p=0.73)
2. 42.3 (1.8)°/46.3 (0.4)°, p=NR. OR=1.53 (95% CI 1.13 to 2.07, p<0.01)
3. 123.7 (1.5)°/120.8 (0.5)°, p=NR. OR=0.95 (95% CI 0.71 to 1.28, p=0.74)
4. 19.7 (1.1)°/20.9 (0.3)°, p=NR. OR 1.15 (95% CI 0.85 to 1.55, p=0.37)
5. 52.1 (1.6)°/51.0 (0.4)°, p=NR. OR 0.95 (95% CI 0.70 to 1.28, p=0.73)
1. 2°
2. 4°
3. 3°
4. 1°
5. 1°
1. N
2. Y
3. N
4. N
5. N
Emery et al27
PC, 67%
a. 1292 (camp)
b. 647 (season)
NR
NR
NR
a. 52
b. 152
NR
NR
1. Bilateral ABD (active)Hips of I vs NI playersBHY / Y1a. Camp: abduction <67.5°; RR 0.56 (95% CI 0.18 to 1.76, p=NR)
1b. Season: abduction <67.5°; RR 0.48 (95% CI 0.15 to 1.53, p=NR)
-1a. N
1b. N
Ibrahim et al24
PC, 58%
101
NR
8/8
NR
9NR
NR
1. TRa. D hips of I vs NI players
b. ND hips of I vs NI players
c. I hips vs NI hips in I players
a. PS
b. PS
c. AH
Y / N1a+b. 44.7 (NR)°/53.7 (NR)°, (a. p=0.03; b. hip p=0.04). OR/RR: NR
1c. NR, p=0.06. OR/RR: NR
a. 9°
b. 9°
c. 3°
1a. Y
1b. Y
1c. N
Tyler et al28
PC, 58%
47/17
(1/2 seasons FU)
23.0 (±4.3)
8/1711NR
NR
1. ABDa. Hips of I vs NI players
b. I hips vs NI hips
a. AH
b. PS
Y / Y1a. (46.3 (10.3)°/45.8 (11.0)°, p=0.92). OR/RR: NR
1b. (46.3 (10.3)°/46.3 (9.2)°, p=0.69). OR/RR: NR
1a. 2°
1b. 0°
1a. N
1b. N
Witvrouw et al29
PC, 58%
146NR13NR1. ABDHips of I vs NI playersAHN / N1. (51.3(NR)°/52.3(NR)°, p=0.45). OR/RR: NR1. 1°1. N
Nevin et al31
CC, 71%
18
23.9 (±3.2)
18
23.8 (±3.6)
NA221. IR
2. ER
3. BKFO
a. I hips I players vs D hips of NI players
b. NI hips I players vs ND hips NI players
PSN / N1a. 30.6 (4.9)°/34.5 (5.6)°, p<0.05
1b. 28.6 (6.1)°/34.5 (5.9)°, p<0.05
2a. 27.2 (5.3)°/29.9 (4.5)°, p<0.05
2b. 26.5 (5.7)°/30.3 (4.7)°, p<0.05)
3a. 19.3 (4.3)cm/15.1 (3.8)cm, p<0.05
3b. 18.7 (3.4)cm/15.2 (4.3)cm, p<0.05
1a. 4°
1b. 6°
2a. 3°
2b. 4°
3a. 4 cm
3b. 4 cm
1a. Y
1b. Y
2a. Y
2b. Y
3a. Y
3b. Y
Verrall et al25
Case–control
57%
42
NR
47
NR
NANR1. Bilateral IR
2. Bilateral ER
3. Bilateral TR
Hips of I vs NI players1, 2, 3 BHY / N1. 36.7 (10.1)°/41.4 (11.3)°, p=0.03
2. 55.2 (10.5)°/60.3 (9.2)°, p=0.01
3. 91.3 (17.6)°/101 (17.1)°, p<0.01
1. 5°
2. 5°
3. 10°
1. Y
2. Y
3. Y
Malliaras et al22
Casecontrol
47%
19
17.1 (±1.6)
10
17.3 (±0.8)
NA181. IR
2. ER
3. Bilateral IR
4. Bilateral ER
5. BKFO
L+R hips of I vs NI playersPSY/N1. R 34.4 (8.1)/34.2 (11.6), p=0.96, L 32.7 (10.7)/33.3 (13.6), p=0.91
2. R 39.4 (8.7)/40.8 (7.1), p=0.66, L 46.2 (13.4)/48.3 (9.6), p=0.63
3. Not different, p=0.96
4. Not different, p=0.61
5. R 16.4 (4.8)cm/12.9 (5.1)cm, p=0.09, L 14.4 (3.8)/12.5 (4.7), p=0.28
1. R 0°/L 1°
2. R 1.5°/L 2°
3. NR
4. NR
5. R 4 cm/L 2 cm
1. N
2. N
3. N
4. N
5. N
Rambani et al23
Casecontrol
29%
25 (18M/7F)
23.2(NR)
25 (18M/7F)
22.8 (NR)
NA251. IR
2. ER
3. FL
4. ABD
5. ADD
Hips of I vs NI playersAHN1. 17.4 (NR)°/40.9 (NR)°, p=0.03
2. 26.2 (NR)°/45.1 (NR)°, p=0.03
3. 122.3 (NR)°/122.2 (NR)°, p=NR
4. 35.2 (NR)°/35.9 (NR)°, p=NR
5. 27.1 (NR)°/26.20 (NR)°, p=NR
1. 24°
2. 19°
3. 0°
4. 1°
5. 1°
1. Y
2. Y
3. N
4. N
5. N
  • Hip ROM refers to passive measures unless stated otherwise. Re-injury: a re-injury of one player during the study. Age presented as mean (SD)

  • Data presentation per side (PS) whether left(L)/right(R) or dominant(D)/non-dominant(ND), for all hips (AH) or both hips (BH) as sum scores of left and right.

  • ABD, abduction; ADD, adduction; BKFO, bent knee fall out; CASP, Critical Appraisal Skills Programme; CC, case-control study; corr, correction; ER, external rotation; EXT, extension; F, female; FL, flexion; I, injured; IR, internal rotation; M, male; N, no; NI, not injured; NR, not reported; OR, odd’s ratio; PC, prospective cohort study; RR, relative risk; TR, total rotation (IR+ER) per hip; Y, yes.