Table 2

A multivariable adjusted model exploring prognostic factors for patient-reported outcomes at 5 years for all participants (n=118)

Effect95% CIp ValueEffect95% CIp ValueEffect95% CIp ValueEffect95% CIp Value
Baseline cartilage defect−1.3−6.8 to 4.10.63−5.3−12.5 to 1.90.15−4.9−15.8 to 6.10.38−0.5−10.9 to 9.90.92
Baseline meniscus damage−1.1−6.6 to 4.40.69−1.5−8.8 to 5.70.68−2.4−13.5 to 8.60.66−2.7−13.2 to 7.80.61
Baseline osteochondral lesion−0.8−5.6 to 3.90.731.4−4.9 to 7.70.66−3.4−13.0 to 6.20.48−3.9−13.0 to 5.20.40
Baseline extension deficit−2.4−7.1 to 2.40.33−1.2−7.5 to 5.10.71−4.1−13.6 to 5.40.40−4.5−13.6 to 4.50.32
contralateral ACL rupture
−12.0−20.2 to −3.70.01−7.5−18.4 to 3.30.17−24.1−40.5 to −7.60.01−23.6−39.2 to −7.90.003
1 non-ACL surgery*−5.7−10.5 to −0.90.02−9.5−15.8 to −3.20.004−9.7−19.3 to −0.10.05−5.8−14.9 to 3.30.21
≥2 non-ACL surgeries*−7.0−14.6 to 0.50.07−14.5−24.4 to −4.60.01−13.6−28.7 to 1.40.08−16.9−31.2 to −2.60.02
SF-36 MCS at baseline0.20.0 to−0.1 to−0.1 to 0.30.410.1−0.1 to 0.40.26
KOOS4 at baseline0.0−0.2 to 0.20.820.20.0 to−0.2 to 0.50.330.2−0.1 to 0.50.27
Rehabilitation visits0.0−0.1 to 0.10.740.0−0.1 to 0.10.520.10.0 to−0.1 to 0.20.27
Delayed ACLR†−0.3−5.6 to 5.10.922.5−4.5 to 9.50.480.9−9.7 to 11.60.86−1.9−9.2 to 11.00.74
Exercise therapy alone†1.4−4.5 to 7.40.6310.12.3 to−2.8 to−13.1 to 9.40.86
  • *No non-ACL surgeries were used as a reference category in multivariable analysis.

  • †Early ACL reconstruction was used as a reference category in multivariable analysis.

  • Effect (regression coefficient): the estimate of the average change in a KOOS subscale (scores range from 0 (worst) to 100 (best)) that corresponds to a 1-unit change in the prognostic factor (1-unit=1 point on a 0–100 scale for KOOS4 and SF-36 MCS). All estimates are adjusted for sex, age, smoking, education level and preinjury activity level. Crude unadjusted estimates are presented in see online supplementary appendix. Non-ACL surgery: total number of knee surgery events not performed in the same surgical session as ACL reconstruction or revision. KOOS and SF-36 scores range from 0 (worst) to 100 (best).

  • Statistically significant effects (p<0.05) are highlighted in bold.

  • ACLR, ACL reconstruction; KOOS4, a mean score from four Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score subscales (pain, symptoms, sport/rec and QOL); MCS, Mental Component Score; SF-36, 36-item Short-Form.