Table 5

A multivariable adjusted model exploring prognostic factors for patient-reported outcomes at 5 years for the exercise therapy alone group

Effect95% CIp ValueEffect95% CIp ValueEffect95% CIp ValueEffect95% CIp  Value
Baseline cartilage defect−11.9−30.4 to 6.60.18−22.3−46.2 to 1.50.06−20.2−58.5 to 18.00.27−10.3−54.3 to 33.70.61
Baseline meniscus damage9.4−10.2 to 29.00.3111.1−12.9 to 35.10.3328.8−12.8 to 70.50.16−3.1−46.3 to 40.20.88
Baseline osteochondral lesion−3.5−16.5 to 9.50.56−1.4−17.3 to 14.50.85−13.9−41.4 to 13.70.29−2.0−31.2 to 27.30.89
Baseline extension deficit7.2−12.3 to 26.60.440.7−23.4 to 24.80.9515.0−25.6 to 55.60.432.8−40.2 to 45.90.89
Graft/contralateral ACL rupture
1 non-ACL surgery*−14.0−27.9 to −0.10.049−13.8−30.8 to 3.30.10−22.8−52.2 to 6.60.12−10.4−41.2 to 20.50.48
≥2 non-ACL surgeries*−6.5−32.4 to 19.50.59−18.2−50.1 to 13.70.24−18.6−73.2 to 36.10.47−1.3−59.6 to 56.90.96
SF-36 MCS at baseline0.2−0.2 to 0.60.300.2−0.3 to 0.80.300.3−0.5 to 1.20.400.5−0.4 to 1.50.23
KOOS4 baseline0.3−0.3 to 0.90.300.3−0.4 to 1.10.380.6−0.6 to−1.2 to 1.50.82
Rehabilitation visits−0.1−0.6 to 0.30.470.0−0.5 to 0.60.84−0.4−1.2 to 0.50.39−0.5−1.4 to 0.40.22
  • *No non-ACL surgeries was used as a reference category in multivariable analysis.

  • Effect (regression coefficient): the estimate of the average change in a KOOS subscale (scores range from 0 (worst) to 100 (best)) that corresponds to a 1-unit change in the prognostic factor (1-unit=1 point on a 0–100 scale for KOOS4 and SF-36 MCS). All estimates are adjusted for sex, age, smoking, education level and preinjury activity level. Crude unadjusted estimates are presented in see online supplementary appendix. Non-ACL surgery: total number of knee surgery events not performed in the same surgical session as ACL reconstruction or revision. KOOS and SF-36 scores range from 0 (worst) to 100 (best).

  • Statistically significant effects (p<0.05) are highlighted in bold.

  • KOOS4, a mean score from four Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score subscales (pain, symptoms, sport/rec and QOL); MCS, Mental Component Score; SF-36, 36-item Short-Form.