Table 2

Definitions of groin pain and eligibility criteria

Groin pain definition
Authors and type of study
Groin pain specified asPain onset (PC/CC)/pain duration (CC)Injury time reference criterionExclusion of athletes at baseline
Groin strain
a. Arnason et al26 (PC)
b. Engebretsen et al19 (PC)
a. NR
b. Pain on inner side of thigh
a. A+NoA
b. 1. A
b. 2. NoA
a. Miss one training/match
b.1. Miss part of training/match
b.2. No time loss
a. NR
b. NR
Groin muscle strain injury
Emery et al27 (PC)
Muscle injury in the hip flexor or hip adductor muscle groupsA+NoAStop training/match or missed next day training/matchGroin contact injury/contusions
Adductor (muscle) strain
a. Ibrahim et al24 (PC)
b. Tyler et al28 (PC)
1. Pain on palpation of the adductor tendons or their insertion on the pubic bone or both AND
2. Groin pain during adduction against resistance
a. NR
b. A
a. Miss training/match>1 week
b. Miss training/match or medical attention
a. NR
b. Athletic pubalgia, osteitis pubis, hernia, hip osteoarthrosis, rectal or testicular referred pain, piriformis syndrome, pelvic or lower extremity fracture
Adductor muscle injury
Witvrouw et al29 (PC)
First time adductor muscle injuryA+NoAMiss one training/matchPrevious lower extremity muscle injury past 2 years
Chronic groin injury
a. Verrall et al (2007)30 (PC)
b. Verrall et al (2005)25 (CC)
1. Pain in adductor and/or lower abdominal and/or pubic bone region AND
2. Pain for at least 6 weeks
1. Pain in the groin region
2. Tenderness of the pubic symphysis and/or superior pubic rami
a. NR
b. NR/NR
a. Pain >6 weeks and miss one match
b. Pain >6 weeks
a. Previous or current chronic groin injury
b. NR
Longstanding groin pain
a. Nevin et al31 (CC)
b. Malliaras et al22 (CC)
1. Pain of palpation of the adductor tendons, their insertion onto the pubic rami of pubic symphysis
2. Presence of pain during resisted adduction
1. Pain while running of performing rapid agility movements AND at least one of the following
a. Groin pain standing on one leg
b. Groin pain or stiffness in morning
c. Groin pain at night
d. Groin pain when coughing or sneezing
a. NR/NR
b. NR/>4 weeks
a. Pain >6 weeks
b. NR
a. Palpable inguinal or femoral hernia or pain felt above the conjoint tendon, clinical signs or symptoms of prostatitis or urinary tract infection, back pain felt from T10 to L5, osteoarthritis of the hip joint or clinical suspicion of a nerve entrapment syndrome
b. NR
Groin pain: sports hernia
Rambani23 (CC)
Unilateral groin painNR/NRNRPatients with cam, pincer or combination on X-rays/MRI
  • Pain onset is presented as acute or non-acute for PC and CC.

  • Duration of pain only presented for CC.

  • A, acute; CC, case-control study; NoA, non-acute; NR, not reported; PC, prospective cohort study.