Table 6

Strength of evidence assessment whether (‘for’) or not (‘against’) all identified hip ROM measures have a relationship (risk of differentiating) with groin pain in athletes. (Findings are presented per hip unless otherwise stated.)

Strength of evidenceFindings
StrongProspective RF studies:
For: lower TR of both hips (BH) (SHKF)24 30
Against: hip IR (SHKF),19 30 abduction19 26–29 and extension19 26
ModerateDifferentiates asymptomatic players from symptomatic ones:
For: lower IR,23 25 ER23 25 of BH (SHKF)
SomeProspective RF studies:
Against: TR per hip (SHKF),24 hip flexion19 and bilateral abduction27
Differentiates asymptomatic players from symptomatic ones:
For: lower TR of BH (SHKF)25
Against: combined (bilateral) hip IR (PHNE) and ER (SHNE)22
InconclusiveProspective RF studies:
Hip ER (SHKF)19 30
Differentiates asymptomatic players from symptomatic ones:
Hip IR (PHNE),22 31 ER (SHNE)22 31 and BKFO22 31
Not studied or single low quality studyProspective RF studies:
Hip IR, ER, TR (all with neutral hip extension), BKFO and adduction
Differentiates asymptomatic players from symptomatic ones:
Hip extension, flexion, abduction and adduction.
  • BKFO, bent knee fall out; ER, external rotation; IR, internal rotation; PHNE, prone hip neutral extension; RF, risk factor; ROM, range of movement; SHKF, supine position with hip and knee flexed to 90˚; SHNE, supine hip neutral extension; TR, total rotation.