Table 3

Descriptives of included studies

Authors,
study type
CASP score (%)
Setting
Sports type/gender/level/country
Groin pain
Definition
Hip ROM
Movement direction
Assessment procedure
Body positionDeviceEnd rangeNumber of assessors/qualification
Arnason et al26
PC, 92%
Soccer/M/prof/IcelandGroin strain1. ABD
2. EXT
1. Supine, hip neutral EXT
2. Supine, hip neutral ABD (Thomas test)
Standard goniometer in degrees (°)Standardised force assessed by tensiometer1
experienced PT
Verrall et al 30
PC, 92%
ARF/M/prof/AustraliaChronic groin injury1. IR
2. ER
3. TR
1, 2 and 3.
Supine, hip and knee FL 90°
Standard goniometer in degrees (°)Maximum range of rotation
Not further specified
1
NR
Engebretsen et al19
PC, 77%
Soccer/M/ Am/NorwayGroin strain1. IR
2. ER
3. FL
4. EXT
5. ABD
1, 2. Supine, hip and knee FL 90°
3. Supine
4. Supine, hip neutral ABD (Thomas test)
5. Supine, hip neutral EXT
Standard goniometer in degrees (°)According FIFA Handbook
Not further specified
10
Sport PTs/sport physicians
Emery et al27
PC, 67%
Ice hockey/M/prof/CanadaGroin muscle strain injury1. Bilateral ABD (active)1. Supine, hip neutral EXT, ABD performed bilaterally at onceStandard goniometer in degrees (˚)Maximum active abduction
Not further specified
23
PTs / physicians
Ibrahim et al24
PC, 58%
Soccer/M/prof/AustraliaAdductor strain1. TR1. Supine, hip and knee FL 90°Standard goniometer in degrees (°)Move to end range
Not further specified
1
NR
Tyler et al28
PC, 58%
Ice hockey/M/prof/USAAdductor muscle strain injury1. ABD1. Supine, hip neutral EXTStandard goniometer in degrees (°)Start of leg rotating externally1
NR
Witvrouw et al29
PC, 58%
Soccer/M/prof/BelgiumAdductor muscle injury1. ABD1. Supine, hip neutral EXTStandard goniometer in degrees (°)Start of leg rotating externally2
PT
Nevin et al31
CC, 71%
Gaelic football/M/Am/IrelandLongstanding groin pain due to sport1. IR
2. ER
3. BKFO
1. Prone, hip neutral EXT, knees together and FL 90°
2. Supine, hip neutral EXT, knees FL 90°
3. Crook-lying, hip FL 45°, knee FL 90° feet together
1,2. Inclinometer in degrees (°)
3. Rigid tape measure; distance fibula-head to plinth (cm)
1. Gentle overpressure
2. End range of motion (ROM) OR pelvis moving
3. Gentle over pressure for BKFO
1
NR
Verrall et al 25
CC, 57%
ARF/M/prof/AustraliaChronic groin injury1. Bilateral IR
2. Bilateral ER
3. Bilateral TR
1, 2, 3. Supine, hip and knee FL 90°Standard goniometer in degrees (°)1,2,3. Maximum range of rotation Not further specified1
NR
Malliaras et al22
CC, 47%
ARF+soccer/M/elite junior/AustraliaGroin pain1. IR
2. ER
3. Bilateral IR
4. Bilateral ER
5. BKFO
1. Prone, hip neutral EXT, knees FL 90°
2. Supine, hip neutral EXT, knees FL 90°
3. as per 1
4. as per 2
5. Crook-lying, hips FL 45°, knees FL 90° feet together
1, 2, 3, 4. Inclinometer in degrees (°)
5. Rigid tape measure; distance fibula-head to plinth (cm)
1. Gentle overpressure
2. End ROM OR pelvic movement
5. Gentle over pressure for BKFO
2
NR
Rambani et al23
CC, 29%
NR/M+F/N/ UKSports hernia1. IR
2. ER
3. FL
4. ABD
5. ADD
1, 2. Supine, hip and knee FL 90°
3. Prone
4, 5. Prone, hip neutral EXT
Standard
goniometer in degrees (°)
NR2
NR
  • Hip ROM refers to passive measures unless stated otherwise.

  • ABD, abduction; ADD, adduction; Am, amateur; ARF, Australian rules football; BKFO, bent knee fall out; CASP, Critical Appraisal Skills Programme; CC, case-control study; ER, external rotation; EXT, extension; F, female; FL, flexion; IR, internal rotation; M, male; NR, not reported; PC, prospective cohort study; prof, professional; PT, physical therapist; TR, total rotation (IR+ER) per hip.