Table 4

Derived clinical prediction rules for a specific treatment

StudyInterventionFollow-up (weeks)Predictors within the ruleNumber of predictorsSuccess/ non-success (n)Sensitivity (95% CI)Specificity (95% CI)Positive likelihood ratio (95% CI)Post-test success (%)
Barton 201133Foot orthoses12Footwear motion control properties >5.0 Usual pain <22.0/100mm (VAS)
Ankle dorsiflexion (knee flexed) <41.3°
Reduced pain during single leg squat
≥1
≥2
≥3
All 4
11/25
11/16
7/2
0/0
1.00 (0.74 to 1.00)
1.00 (0.74 to 1.00)
0.64 (0.35 to −0.85)
0
0.26 (0.14 to 0.42)
0.54 (0.38 to 0.70)
0.94 (0.81 to 0.98)
0
1.3 (1.1 to 1.6)
2.2 (1.5 to 3.1)
11.1 (2.7 to 46.9)
0
24
41
78
0
Crowell and Wofford 201234Lumbo-pelvic manipulation1Hip IR side to side difference >14°
Ankle dorsiflexion (knee flexed) >16°
Navicular drop >3mm
No self-reported stiffness sitting >20 min Squatting (most painful activity)
≥2
≥3
≥4
≥5



0.72 (0.54 to 0.90)
0.45 (0.23 to 0.67)
0.16 (0.02 to 0.30)
0.02 (0 to 0.07)
0.11 (0 to 0.24)
0.33 (0.14 to 0.52)
0.84 (0.68 to 1.01)
0.95 (0.85 to 1.0)
0.8 (0.6 to 1.1)
0.7 (0.4 to 1.2)
1.0 (0.3 to 4.0)
0.4 (0 to 10.5)



Iverson 200848Lumbo-pelvic manipulation1Hip IR side to side difference >14°
Ankle dorsiflexion (knee flexed) >16°
Navicular drop >3 mm
No self-reported stiffness sitting >20 min Squatting (most painful activity)
≥1
≥2
≥3
≥4
All 5
0/11
5/11
8/1
5/0
2/0
0.91 (0.71 to 0.99)
0.91 (0.71 to 0.99)
0.68 (0.45 to 0.86)
0.32 (0.15 to 0.55)
0.09 (0.02 to 0.31)
0.15 (0.04 to 0.35)
0.56 (0.35 to 0.75)
0.96 (0.81 to 1.00)
1.00 (0.84 to 1.00)
1.00 (0.84 to 1.00)
1.1 (0.87 to 1.3)
2.05 (1.3 to 2.9)
18.4 (3.6 to 105.3)
Infinite (0.90, infinite)
Infinite (0.31, infinite)
47
63
94
100
100
Vicenzino 201030Foot orthoses12Age >25 years
Midfoot width difference >10.96 mm
Height <165 cm
Worst pain <53.25/100 mm (VAS)
≥1
≥2
≥3
All 4
17/16
12/8
6/1
0/0
1 (0.77 to 1.0)
0.71 (0.44 to 0.89)
0.35 (0.15 to 0.61)
0.36 (0.19 to 0.57)
0.68 (0.46 to 0.84)
0.96 (0.78 to 0.99)
1.6 (1.2 to 2.1)
2.2 (1.1 to 4.2)
8.8 (1.2 to 66.9)
52.7
59.5
85.4
  • IR, internal rotation; VAS, visual analogue scale.