Table 1

Summary of included comparisons (n=99 comparisons in 88 trials) grouped by residence and health condition

Residence/health condition*Residential careGeneral communityParkinson's diseaseStrokeCognitive impairmentAfter hospital discharge
Number of comparisons15696333
Sample size at randomisation, mean (SD), total sample134 (147) 1876264 (341) 15 773134 (89) 669126 (35) 25291 (104) 272212 (146) 636
Follow-up (weeks), mean (SD)33 (15)51 (27)30 (19)25 (23)31 (19)35 (15)
PEDro score,† mean (SD)6 (2)6 (1)7 (1)8 (0)7 (1)8 (1)
Average age >75 years14331033
Control group falls/person-year or proportion who fell in follow-up period, mean (SD)1.8 (1.4)1.0 (0.9)16.1 (13.7)2.1 (0.3)1.5 (1.6)2.2 (1.3)
Unselected population (increased fall risk not an inclusion criterion)37
Moderate or high intensity strength training‡3282122
High intensity strength training§1101001
Moderate or high challenge balance training¶9475232
High challenge balance training**5313132
Moderate or high intensity endurance training††2141000
Flexibility programme‡‡3220000
Walking programme§§9292120
Ten exercise participants/instructor¶¶14253110
Exercises tailored in type or intensity***8315133
2+ hours of exercise per week†††5406332
3+ hours of exercise per week‡‡‡2205301
Good adherence§§§13526331
  • *Studies in the clinical populations were also among community dwellers.

  • †Coded using PEDro rating scale.14

  • ‡,§Moderate intensity (40–60% of the 1-repetition maximum (RM) that is, a weight so heavy that it can only be lifted once) or high intensity (>60% 1RM).

  • ¶,**Moderately challenging=two of the following criteria or highly challenging=all three criteria: movement of the centre of mass, narrowing of the base of support and minimising upper limb support.

  • ††Moderate intensity=40–60% maximum heart rate, some increase in breathing or heart rate, or perceived exertion of 11–14 on the Borg scale or high intensity=above 60% of maximum heart rate or heart rate reserve, large increase in breathing or heart rate (conversation is difficult or broken) or perceived exertion of 15 or greater on the Borg scale.

  • ‡‡Short-duration or long-duration stretches specifically mentioned.

  • §§Walking programme/practice was specifically mentioned.

  • ¶¶Ten or fewer participants per instructor.

  • ***Type or intensity of most exercises was designed for each individual based on an assessment.

  • †††,‡‡‡Greater than or equal to 2 or 3 hours of exercise with instructor plus prescribed home exercise per week over intervention period.

  • §§§Greater than or equal to 75% participants attended 50% or more sessions and/or >50% attendance rate.