Table 1

Summary of the questionnaires administered during preparations for the Olympic Games

DomainQuestionnaireMeasure
ProbioticsCustom questionnaireProbiotic use (any brand)
TravelCustom questionnaireNumber of travel occasions
PsychologyDepression, Anxiety, Stress ScaleSymptoms of depression, anxiety and stress.25 26
Dispositional Resilience ScaleResilience to stress.27
Recovery-Stress Questionnaire28 Multidimensional analysis of an individual’s stress-recovery state. For analysis, the subscales scores for overall and sport-specific stress and recovery were analysed independently.
Perceived Stress ScaleLevel of global perceived psychological stress.29
SleepPittsburgh Sleep Quality Index30 Sleep quality, latency, duration, efficiency and disturbances. For analysis, a cut-off score of ≥5 was used.
Epworth Sleepiness Scale31 Daytime sleepiness symptoms. For analysis, a cut-off score of ≥10 was used.
NutritionLow Energy Availability in Females15 Injury history, gastrointestinal and reproductive function. For analysis, a global score ≥8 was used to indicate increased risk of low energy availability15 as well as the individual components: gastrointestinal: ≥4, injury: ≥4 and reproductive function: ≥8.
  • See Drew et al 8 for details.