Table 3

Results from the dummy experiments

ParameterTest conditionResults for all boards (max values)Reference for assessment
Displacement (mm)V2, h=1 m16.535.670.639.861.156.0
Head injury criterion (–)V2131281439035591000*
Assessment score0.1310.0280.1430.0900.0350.059
Shoulder force (lateral, y-axis) (N)V2146158512731155133915413000†
Assessment score0.0490.5280.4240.3850.4460.514
Lower spine force (lateral, y-axis) (N)V224921443132411156488851500*
Assessment score1.6610.9620.8830.7430.4320.590
Moment of lower spine (around x-axis) (Nm)V2695645474536120‡
Assessment score0.5750.4670.3750.3920.3750.300
Compression of lower rib (mm)V21871157842*
Assessment score0.4290.1670.2620.1190.1670.190
Viscous criterion (–)V20.100000.01*
Assessment score0.1000.0000.0000.0000.0000.000
Abdominal force (N)V2818407287961061172500*
Assessment score0.3270.1630.1150.0380.0420.047
Pubic symphysis force (N)V21456261015892032150215516000*
Assessment score0.2430.4350.2650.3390.2500.259
Overall assessment score (sum)3.5152.7502.4672.1061.7471.959
  • Assessment scores were calculated as the measured value divided by the reference value.

  • *Reference values used in automotive testing.19

  • †Reference values based on previous studies.20 21

  • ‡Current standards do not include a threshold value for the lower spine moment; therefore, we chose 120 Nm, because it represented the highest spine moment recorded in this test series (recorded in a dummy configuration which is not part of this publication).