Table 1

Selected summary baseline characteristics of participants (n=1030)

FactorCategoryMean (SD)Number (%)
Demographics, including self-rated pain and disability
 Age (years)57 (15)
 Sex (male)455 (44)
 Index of multiple deprivation15 (10)
 Baseline SPADI48 (22)
 Baseline QuickDASH38 (18)
Participants' pain beliefs, experience and expectations
 Pain self-efficacy questionnaire18 0–60, 60=greater efficacy44 (13)
General health
 Body mass index, mean (SD)27 (5)
 Anxiety and depression in the previous 7 daysNo657 (64)
Moderately347 (34)
Extremely26 (<3)
 Musculoskeletal pain outside the affected upper quadrant: (see online supplementary file S1 for further  detail)None787 (76)
One additional site185 (18)
≥2 additional sites58 (6)
 Additional health problems (see online supplementary file S1 for further detail)None551 (53)
One additional298 (29)
≥2 additional181 (18)
 Smoker (cigarettes, cigars or pipe)Yes129 (13)
Stopped for the last 10 years117 (11)
Stopped >10 years261 (25)
No, never523 (51)
 Highest level of leisure time exercise intensity in a typical week* Godin leisure time exercise questionnaire44 Strenuous222 (22)
Moderate333 (32)
Mild348 (34)
None124 (12)
 Current frequency of pain medicationNone258 (25)
Very occasional360 (35)
Most days and/or nights217 (21)
Every day and/or night195 (19)
 Currently off work due to shoulder painYes18 (<2)
 Time off work due to shoulder pain in last yearYes127 (12)
 Nature of employmentEmployed/education599 (58)
Retired364 (36)
Currently not working62 (6)
Shoulder symptoms
 Severity of shoulder pain at rest (0–10 numerical rating scale)3 (3)
 Duration of shoulder pain (months)14 (28)
  • (see online supplementary files S1–3 for the full list and further details of putative prognostic factors investigated).

  • *Unit of measurement used for data analysis modified after data collection.

  • SPADI, Shoulder Pain and Disability Index; QuickDASH, Quick Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Questionnaire.