Table 2

Study outcome data—kinematic and joint moments. Positive values indicate: flexion, adduction/varus/inversion, internal rotation at the hip, knee and ankle; varus for segmental angles; ground reaction force medial to the joint centre of interest for moment arm values

InterventionCategoryPlaneData pointPaperUnitsControlDeviceEffect
size
p Value
MeanSDMeanSD
Lateral WedgeKnee
Moment
FrontalEarly Stance PeakButler et al 31 Nm/kg*m0.380.130.350.12−0.34<0.01
Hinman et al 33 Nm/BW*Ht3.60.93.170.61−0.790.03
Hinman et al 34 Nm/BW*Ht %4.041.053.821−0.30NA
Hinman et al 3 Nm/BW*Ht %3.820.623.620.59−0.47<0.001
Hsu et al 15 %BW*LL5.410.714.710.67−1.430.15
Jones et al 35 Nm/kg0.3830.150.3570.14−0.25NA
Jones et al 26 Nm/kg0.390.160.370.15−0.180.001
Kerrigan et al 38 Nm/kg*m0.40.080.360.08−0.71<0.001
Moyer et al 41 %BW*Ht3.081.092.981.05−0.13NA
Pagani et al42 Nm/kg0.410.150.380.13−0.300.206
Resende et al 44 PC0.040.5−0.10.49−0.400.002
Late Stance PeakButler et al 31 Nm/kg*m0.250.080.240.07−0.190.54
Hinman et al 33 Nm/BW*Ht1.980.821.70.76−0.500.001
Hinman et al 34 Nm/BW*Ht %2.890.832.630.84−0.44NA
Hinman et al 3 Nm/BW*Ht %2.450.782.320.84−0.23<0.001
Hsu et al 15 %BW*LL5.160.714.530.67−1.290.04
Jones et al 26 Nm/kg0.330.140.30.13−0.310.01
Kerrigan et al 38 Nm/kg*m0.340.080.310.08−0.53<0.001
Moyer et al 41 %BW*Ht2.990.812.781.01−0.32NA
Fantini Pagani et al 42 Nm/kg0.380.160.350.16−0.27<0.001
Overall PeakButler et al 32 Nm/kg*m0.370.130.340.13−0.33<0.01
Chapman et al 8 Nm/kg0.390.160.370.15−0.18<0.001
Duivenvoorden et al 14 Nm511848.9610−0.20NA
Hatfield et al 16 Nm/kg0.430.150.390.16−0.36<0.001
Hinman et al 7 Nm/BW*Ht %3.820.783.60.75−0.41<0.001
Kuroyanagi et al 39 %BW*Ht4.21.83.91.5−0.26<0.05
Leitch et al 40 %BW*Ht3.10.430.48−0.32<0.001
Maly et al 9 Nm/kg0.480.130.470.11−0.120.101
Shimada et al 43 Nm/kg0.90.20.860.19−0.29<0.001
ImpulseChapman et al 8 Nm/kg*s0.160.070.140.07−0.40<0.001
Duivenvoorden et al 14 Nm/s231022.7717−0.02NA
Hatfield et al 16 Nm/kg*s0.170.080.160.09−0.17<0.001
Hinman et al 3 Nm.s/BW*Ht %1.380.491.310.48−0.20<0.001
Hinman et al Nm.s/BW*Ht %1.260.371.180.38−0.30<0.001
Jones et al 35 Nm/kg *s0.150.060.1360.061−0.33NA
Jones et al 26 Nm/kg *s0.160.070.140.07−0.40<0.001
Moyer et al 41 %BW*Ht*s1.450.521.440.52−0.03NA
Fantini Pagani et al 42 Nm/kg % stance23.6210.5821.9910.51−0.22<0.001
MeanDuivenvoorden et al 14 Nm311430.6914−0.03NA
Kakihana et al 36 Nm/kg/m0.360.020.340.02−1.41<0.001
Kakihana et al 37 Nm/kg/m0.220.010.210.01−1.41<0.001
MidstanceHinman et al 34 Nm/BW *Ht %2.560.792.430.75−0.24NA
SagittalEarly Stance PeakJones et al 26 Nm/kg0.610.240.610.230.00ns
Value at first Peak KAMHsu et al 15 %BW*LL1.570.962.241.910.630.46
Value at second Peak KAMHsu et al 15 %BW*LL−1.631.09−1.670.89−0.060.94
TransverseValue at first Peak KAMHsu et al 15 %BW*LL0.70.330.60.330.430.62
Value at second Peak KAMHsu et al 15 %BW*LL1.830.361.610.370.850.31
Principal ComponentResende et al 44 PC−0.060.440.10.410.53<0.001
Knee AngleFrontalValue at first Peak KAMHinman et al 7 degrees2.114.941.634.94−0.14<0.001
Hsu et al 15 degrees0.721.70.011.93−0.550.51
Fantini Pagani et al 42 degrees0.22.2−0.22.2−0.26NA
Value at second Peak KAMHsu et al 15 degrees1.221.490.851.87−0.310.7
Fantini Pagani et al 42 degrees0.21.901.9−0.15<0.05
Mean VarusKakihana et al 36 degrees2.230.842.180.83−0.080.094
Kakihana et al 37 degrees2.70.72.60.7−0.200.094
HKA at first Peak KAMHinman et al 7 degrees1.914.591.474.58−0.14<0.001
Mean during 20%–30% StanceFantini Pagani et al 42 degrees−0.12.2−0.42.2−0.19NA
Mean during 70%–80% StanceFantini Pagani et al 42 degrees0.21.7−0.11.7−0.25<0.05
Overall PeakButler et al 31 degrees2.64.42.24.5−0.130.29
First Acceleration PeakShimida et al(2006)m/s2 1.650.691.360.76−0.570.018
Excursion RangeButler et al 31 degrees6.32.35.62.3−0.43<0.01
SagittalValue at first Peak KAMHsu et al 15 degrees9.414.3111.914.90.770.37
Value at second Peak KAMHsu et al 15 degrees7.532.899.364.830.650.44
TransverseValue at first Peak KAMHsu et al 15 degrees2.231.572.851.770.520.53
Value at second Peak KAMHsu et al 15 degrees3.642.534.052.560.230.78
Principal ComponentResende et al 44 PC−1.6515.32.2715.480.360.004
Knee GRF moment armFrontalValue at first Peak KAMHinman et al 7 mm53.1411.8950.212.030.35<0.001
Hsu et al 15 %LL4.591.1521.143.200.03
Moyer et al 41 cm5.091.754.791.670.25NA
Fantini Pagani et al 42 mm38.116.135.614.60.23NA
Value at second Peak KAMHsu et al 15 %LL4.171.282.671.291.650.03
Moyer et al 41 cm5.151.954.791.960.26NA
Fantini Pagani et al 42 mm3916.436.616.40.21<0.05
Overall PeakMoyer et al 41 cm5.631.855.451.820.14NA
Mean During 20%–30% of StanceFantini Pagani et al 42 mm34.514.932.714.40.17NA
Mean During 70%–80% of StanceFantini Pagani et al 42 mm36.917.234.317.70.21<0.05
Mean During 20%–80% of StanceHatfield et al 16 mm34.215.1532.315.440.18<0.001
Ankle MomentFrontalOverall PeakButler et al 32 Nm/kg*m−0.030.03−0.060.05−1.03<0.01
Chapman et al 8 Nm/kg−0.090.06−0.130.06−0.94<0.001
Hatfield et al 16 Nm/kg−0.120.09−0.150.1−0.45<0.001
Fantini Pagani et al 42 Nm/kg−0.070.05−0.090.06−0.51NA
MeanKakihana et al 36 Nm/kg/m−0.170.01−0.210.01−5.66<0.001
Kakihana et al 37 Nm/kg/m−0.130−0.150NA<0.001
Fantini Pagani et al 42 Nm/kg−0.010.06−0.030.06−0.47<0.05
Value at first Peak KAMHsu et al 15 %BW*LL−0.270.28−0.390.19−0.710.83
Chapman et al 8 Nm/kg−0.0770.064−0.1190.062−0.94<0.001
Value at second Peak KAMHsu et al 15 %BW*LL−0.530.47−0.60.37−0.230.78
ImpulseHatfield et al 16 Nm/kg*s−0.040.04−0.060.05−0.62<0.001
Principal ComponentResende et al 44 PC−0.270.790.510.771.41<0.001
SagittalValue at first Peak KAMHsu et al 15 %BW*LL4.821.744.011.98−0.610.46
Value at second Peak KAMHsu et al 15 %BW*LL12.231.5911.161.01−1.140.19
TransverseValue at first Peak KAMHsu et al 15 %BW*LL1.640.821.450.810.330.97
Value at second Peak KAMHsu et al 15 %BW*LL4.231.443.981.50.240.75
Ankle AngleFrontalOverall PeakButler et al 32 degrees−3.54.3−5.34.3−0.59<0.01
Chapman et al 8 degrees−3.512.77−4.432.84−0.46<0.001
Hatfield et al 16 degrees−3.253.4−4.313.77−0.42ns
Fantini Pagani et al 42 degrees−6.72−6.42.60.18NA
Excursion RangeButler et al 32 degrees10.12.813.53.71.47<0.01
Hatfield et al 16 degrees92.659.382.720.20ns
Fantini Pagani et al 42 degrees123.612.63.40.24NA
Value at first Peak KAMChapman et al 8 degrees−3.462.78−4.42.84−0.47<0.001
Hsu et al 15 degrees−1.473.2−0.061.740.770.36
Mean VarusKakihana et al 36 degrees1.750.381.960.470.690.142
Kakihana et al 37 degrees2.40.42.50.40.350.249
Mean ValgusKakihana et al 36 degrees−1.350.4−2.140.71−1.940.07
Kakihana et al 37 degrees−1.50.2−1.80.3−1.66<0.001
Value at second Peak KAMHsu et al 15 degrees−0.873.21−0.82.210.040.96
Principal ComponentResende et al 44 PC5.2120.76−7.7525.28−0.79<0.001
SagittalValue at first Peak KAMHsu et al 15 degrees1.641.150.241.63−1.400.11
Value at second Peak KAMHsu et al 15 degrees6.412.226.062.04−0.230.78
TransverseValue at first Peak KAMHsu et al 15 degrees1.031.081.011.17−0.030.96
Value at second Peak KAMHsu et al 15 degrees3.150.872.941.4−0.250.76
Ankle GRF moment armFrontalMeanKakihana et al 36 mm−22.582.24−26.081.95−2.36<0.001
Kakihana et al 37 mm−23.40.9−26.70.7−5.79<0.001
Overall PeakFantini Pagani et al 42 mm−9.14.2−10.65.4−0.44NA
Hip MomentFrontalOverall PeakButler et al 32 Nm/kg*m0.630.110.610.12−0.250.06
Hinman et al 7 Nm/BW*Ht %6.021.256.071.160.060.27
Value at first Peak KAMHsu et al 15 %BW*LL11.441.1411.290.8−0.220.8
Value at second Peak KAMHsu et al 15 %BW*LL10.860.7610.031.34−1.080.21
Principal ComponentResende et al 44 PC0.041.72−0.141.72−0.150.003
SagittalValue at first Peak KAMHsu et al 15 %BW*LL1.631.060.952.04−0.590.48
Value at second Peak KAMHsu et al 15 %BW*LL−1.971.79−2.042.06−0.050.94
TransverseValue at first Peak KAMHsu et al 15 %BW*LL−0.370.57−0.290.42−0.230.79
Value at second Peak KAMHsu et al 15 %BW*LL1.520.71.50.480.050.95
Principal ComponentResende et al 44 PC−0.020.180.070.160.750.001
Hip AngleFrontalOverall PeakButler et al 32 degrees7.32.66.92.9−0.210.29
Hinman et al 7 degrees6.374.356.814.160.150.001
Excursion RangeButler et al 32 degrees7.73.17.13−0.280.09
Hinman et al 7 degrees30.1711.1232.2713.670.240.11
Value at first Peak KAMHsu et al 15 degrees7.572.677.011.54−0.360.66
Value at second Peak KAMHsu et al 15 degrees5.522.33.782−1.140.1
SagittalValue at first Peak KAMHsu et al 15 degrees9.784.5510.752.70.370.66
Value at second Peak KAMHsu et al 15 degrees−5.081.7−2.863.321.190.17
TransverseValue at first Peak KAMHsu et al 15 degrees−1.284.920.913.370.730.39
Value at second Peak KAMHsu et al 15 degrees3.815.075.392.970.540.25
Segment AngleTrunk LeanExcursion RangeEsfandiari et al 19 degrees4.371.654.20.63−0.190.606
Principal ComponentResende et al 44 PC−0.4123.152.2324.130.160.03
Foot progressionMean During 25%–50% StanceHinman et al 7 degrees−6.065.56−7.785.78−0.43<0.001
Value at MidstanceHsu et al 15 degrees−5.441.77−4.922.420.350.67
Femur FrontalValue at first Peak KAMHinman et al 7 degrees−3.543.353.973.413.14<0.001
Femur TransversePrincipal ComponentResende et al 44 PC−1.5116.624.5316.360.52<0.001
Tibia FrontalValue at first Peak KAMHinman et al 7 degrees5.452.195.442.16−0.010.85
Tibia TransversePrincipal ComponentResende et al 44 PC0.7210.5−4.018.46−0.70<0.001
Trunk TransversePrincipal ComponentResende et al 44 PC2.049.85−2.37.83−0.690.001
Lateral Wedge with Arch SupportKnee MomentFrontalEarly Stance PeakAbdallah et al 30 Nm/kg0.660.160.630.15−0.27ns
Jones et al 35 Nm/kg0.3830.150.3570.139−0.25NA
Jones et al 26 Nm/kg0.390.160.370.15−0.180.001
Yeh et al 45 %BW*LL4.991.034.791.01−0.28<0.05
ImpulseHatfield et al 16 Nm/kg*s0.170.080.160.09−0.17<0.001
Jones et al 35 Nm/kg *s0.150.060.140.062−0.23NA
Jones et al 26 Nm/kg *s0.160.070.150.07−0.20<0.001
Late Stance PeakJones et al 26 Nm/kg0.330.140.310.14−0.200.004
Yeh et al 45 %BW*LL4.621.384.291.23−0.36<0.05
Overall PeakHatfield, et al 16 Nm/kg0.430.150.40.16−0.270.01
SagittalEarly Stance PeakJones, et al 26 Nm/kg0.610.240.620.230.06NA
Knee AngleFrontalValue at first Peak KAMYeh, et al 45 degrees0.732.750.762.650.020.8
Value at second Peak KAMYeh, et al 45 degrees0.042.55−0.032.41−0.040.65
Knee GRF moment armMean During 20%–80% of StanceHatfield, et al 16 mm34.215.1533.315.32−0.080.07
Value at first Peak KAMYeh, et al 45 %LL4.231.463.911.21−0.340.01
Value at second Peak KAMYeh, et al 45 %LL3.731.633.21.58−0.470.002
Ankle MomentFrontalValue at first Peak KAMAbdallah, et al 30 Nm/kg−0.040.03−0.130.05−3.09<0.05
Yeh, et al 45 %BW*LL−0.050.34−0.350.39−1.16<0.001
Value at second Peak KAMYeh, et al 45 %BW*LL−0.430.49−0.680.61−0.640.02
Overall PeakHatfield, et al 16 Nm/kg−0.120.09−0.120.090.00<0.001
ImpulseHatfield, et al 16 Nm/kg*s−0.040.04−0.060.05−0.62<0.001
Ankle AngleFrontalOverall PeakHatfield, et al 16 degrees−3.253.4−3.243.660.00NA
Value at first Peak KAMYeh, et al 45 degrees0.861.52−0.433.78−0.630.21
Value at second Peak KAMYeh, et al 45 degrees2.791.940.913.74−0.890.03
Excursion RangeHatfield, et al 16 degrees92.658.232.56−0.420.02
Hip MomentFrontalValue at first Peak KAMAbdallah, 30 Nm/kg0.890.130.910.190.17ns
Yeh, et al 45 %BW*LL11.861.4711.882.070.020.45
Value at second Peak KAMYeh, et al 45 %BW*LL10.041.129.851.03−0.250.35
Hip AngleFrontalValue at first Peak KAMYeh, et al 45 degrees7.362.48.012.150.400.26
Value at second Peak KAMYeh, et al 45 degrees4.491.854.52.010.010.77
Segment AnglePelvic ObliquityValue at first Peak KAMAbdallah, et al 30 degrees4.382.384.420.01ns
Foot progressionValue at MidstanceYeh, et al 45 degrees−3.454.44−4.753.670.450.001
Medial Arch SupportKnee MomentFrontalEarly Stance PeakHinman, et al 17 %BW*Ht3.631.223.721.230.100.25
Late Stance PeakHinman, et al 17 %BW*Ht2.050.92.060.790.020.62
ImpulseHinman, et al 17 (%BW*Ht)(s)1.190.521.220.520.080.29
SagittalOverall PeakHinman, et al 17 %BW*Ht2.811.362.941.610.120.13
Hip MomentFrontalEarly Stance PeakHinman, et al 17 %BW*Ht5.921.056.020.970.140.28
Late Stance PeakHinman, et al 17 %BW*Ht4.90.924.871.03−0.040.72
Segment AngleFoot progressionValue at MidstanceHinman, et al 17 degrees−6.954.82-74.54−0.020.89
Shock Absorbing InsoleKnee MomentFrontalOverall PeakTurpin, et al 18 %BW*Ht3.761.683.651.54−0.100.93
Early Stance PeakTurpin, et al 18 %BW*Ht3.541.753.591.750.040.93
Late Stance PeakTurpin, et al 18 %BW*Ht1.992.661.791.89−0.120.72
ImpulseTurpin, et al 18 %BW*Ht*s1.220.541.180.47−0.110.35
  • BW, body weight; Ht, height; KAM, knee adduction moment; LL, leg length; PC, principal component; NA, not available.