Table 3

Multivariable linear regression for SPADI at 6-month follow-up: n=804, adjusted R2=0.31 (baseline SPADI and QuickDASH not included in the model)

Independent predictorSubgroup comparisonsParameter estimate95% CIp Value
Patient expectation of changeCompletely recover0
Much improve5.211.80 to 8.610.003
Slightly improve12.438.20 to 16.67<0.001
No change/worse−0.94−8.53 to 6.660.809
Pain self-efficacy−0.36−0.50 to −0.22<0.001
Number of additional health problemsNone0
One3.520.30 to 6.750.032
Two or more6.621.48 to 9.750.008
Anxiety or depressionNone0
Moderate2.19−0.99 to 5.370.177
Extreme12.021.49 to 22.560.025
Frequency of pain medicationNone/occasional0
Most/every day/night3.850.61 to 7.090.020
Most strenuous exerciseNone0
Mild−5.53−10.32 to −0.740.024
Moderate−8.98−13.86 to −4.11<0.001
Strenuous−6.82−12.17 to −1.470.013
Difference between passive and active abduction0.070.004 to 0.1420.038
Change during scapular facilitationYes0
No4.932.13 to 7.740.001
Severity of pain at rest1.891.26 to 2.51<0.001
Duration of shoulder symptoms (weeks)0.020.01 to 0.030.002
Paraesthesia in the armNo0
Yes−10.08−18.73 to −1.430.022
Current employment statusEmployed0
Retired2.960.10 to 6.020.058
Unemployed14.307.72 to 20.87<0.001
  • The first row of prognostic factors with categorical data is the reference or comparator category.

  • SPADI, Shoulder Pain and Disability Index; QuickDASH, Quick Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Questionnaire.