Table 1

Pooled effects of exercise on quality of life and physical function in patients with cancer during and post-treatment

ComparisonQuality of lifePhysical function
Ng (95% CI)Between-group difference (p)Ng (95% CI)Between-group difference (p)
 Overall710.19 (0.13 to 0.26)*37.93*640.26 (0.18 to 0.35)*58.75*
 Overall without outliers6771 77 78 105 0.15 (0.10 to 0.20)*0.005935 49 71 90 108 0.21 (0.15 to 0.27)*15.87
 Diagnosis0.700.60
Timing0.810.61
 During320.16 (0.08 to 0.23)*0.00250.22 (0.13 to 0.32)*12.76
 During–post70.10 (–0.07 to 0.26)0.0050.12 (–0.08 to 0.31)0.00
 Post280.16 (0.06 to 0.25)*21.43290.21 (0.12 to 0.31)*23.64
Intervention duration (week)0.100.08
 ≤12380.21 (0.13 to 0.28)*0.00340.28 (0.20 to 0.36)*6.09
 13–≤24210.09 (0.01 to 0.17)*0.00180.14 (0.05 to 0.23)*11.61
 >2480.12 (–0.02 to 0.27)0.0070.16 (–0.03 to 0.34)30.67
Delivery mode<0.010.01
 Supervised480.20 (0.14 to 0.26)*0.00420.27 (0.20 to 0.33)*3.20
 Unsupervised190.04 (–0.06 to 0.13)0.00170.09 (–0.01 to 0.19)11.29
Supervised
Frequency (times/week)0.760.59
 <3280.21 (0.13 to 0.28)*0.00240.26 (0.17 to 0.34)*0.00
 ≥3200.19 (0.09 to 0.28)*0.00180.30 (0.18 to 0.42)*11.43
Intensity0.850.38
 Low-moderate80.22 (0.04 to 0.39)*31.7060.26 (0.06 to 0.46)*0.00
 Moderate180.23 (0.13 to 0.34)*0.00160.33 (0.19 to 0.47)*18.04
 Moderate-high190.17 (0.09 to 0.26)*0.00170.21 (0.11 to 0.30)*0.00
Type0.270.53
 AE120.18 (0.03 to 0.32)*7.14120.28 (0.10 to 0.47)*28.87
 RE120.13 (0.02 to 0.24)*0.0080.27 (0.14 to 0.41)*0.00
 AE+RE210.26 (0.17 to 0.34)*0.00190.28 (0.19 to 0.38)*0.00
 RE+impact30.06 (−0.27 to 0.38)0.0030.00 (−0.37 to 0.37)21.79
Time (min/session)0.580.54
 ≤30120.15 (0.02 to 0.27)*4.43110.29 (0.14 to 0.43)*9.26
 30–≤60260.24 (0.15 to 0.32)*0.00240.23 (0.14 to 0.31)*0.00
 >6030.13 (–0.05 to 0.32)0.0030.35 (0.16 to 0.54)*1.95
Z-valueZ-value
Weekly exercise volume (regression)
minutes/week
400.43370.69
Weekly energy expenditure (regression)
MET-minutes/week
380.45350.10
Unsupervised
Frequency (times/week)0.770.23
 <580.04 (−0.12 to 0.21)0.007−0.03 (–0.20 to 0.14)0.00
 ≥590.02 (−0.11 to 0.14)0.0070.15 (−0.04 to 0.35)54.02*
Intensity0.930.55
 Low-moderate10.14 (–0.21 to 0.49)1−0.15 (–0.50 to 0.20)0.00
 Moderate140.03 (–0.08 to 0.15)0.00120.10 (–0.02 to 0.21)0.00
 Moderate-high30.04 (–0.16 to 0.25)0.0030.17 (–0.18 to 0.51)61.01
Type0.700.16
 AE90.06 (–0.08 to 0.19)0.00100.16 (–0.01 to 0.32)33.83
 RE00
 AE+RE100.02 (–0.11 to 0.15)0.0070.01 (–0.13 to 0.14)0.00
Time (min/session)0.34
 ≤3012−0.01 (–0.10 to 0.13)0.00110.07 (–0.09 to 0.23)40.39
 30–≤6040.08 (–0.11 to 0.28)0.0030.09 (–0.12 to 0.29)0.000.69
Z-valueZ-value
Weekly exercise volume (regression)
minutes/week
16−0.66151.87
Weekly energy expenditure (regression)
MET-minutes/week
16−0.27152.34*
  • *p≤0.05.

  • AE, aerobic exercise; g, Hedges’ g; I², indicator of heterogeneity; MET, metabolic equivalent; n, number of studies included; RE, resistance exercise.