Table 2

Associations between walking pace (three groups) and all-cause, cardiovascular disease and cancer mortality. Walkers aged 30 years and over with no diagnosed cardiovascular disease or cancer at baseline* excluding deaths occurring in the first 24 months of follow-up

Deaths/nModel 1†Model 2‡Model 3§
HR95% CIsHR95% CIsHR95% CIs
All-cause mortality
Walking pace
 Average1957/25 8570.730.67 to 0.810.780.71 to 0.870.800.72 to 0.88
 Brisk/fast730/19 7730.610.55 to 0.690.680.61 to 0.770.760.67 to 0.87
P trend linear<0.001<0.001<0.001
P trend non-linear<0.0010.0030.001
Cardiovascular mortality
Walking pace
 Average552/25 8570.680.57 to 0.810.750.63 to 0.900.760.64 to 0.91
 Brisk/fast193/19 7730.550.45 to 0.680.670.54 to 0.830.790.62 to 0.99
P trend linear<0.0010.0010.089
P trend non-linear0.0070.0320.007
Cancer mortality
Walking pace
 Average717/25 8571.030.85 to to to 1.31
 Brisk/fast297/19 7730.880.71 to 1.080.950.76 to to 1.29
P trend linear0.1520.4780.945
P trend non-linear0.3380.2690.339
  • The Health Survey for England and Scottish Health Survey (n=49 731).

  • *Prevalent cardiovascular disease was defined as doctor-diagnosed or self-reported (long-standing illness module) ischaemic heart disease, angina or stroke; prevalent cancer was determined through cancer registration records or self-reported (long-standing illness module).

  • †Model adjusted for age, sex and cohort.

  • ‡Model also adjusted for long-standing illness, alcohol drinking frequency, psychological distress, body mass index, smoking status and education level.

  • §Model also adjusted for total (non-walking) physical activity volume (MET-hours/week), walking volume (MET-hours/week) and highest physical activity intensity reached.

  • MET, metabolic equivalent.