Table 6

Results of prevention therapy

Preventive measureEffectStudiesPatients (N)(S)MD/RR (95% CI)Results in favour of
Immobilisation versus functional supportRecurrent sprains11 RCTs844RR 1.17 (0.86 to 1.59)None
Functional supportRecurrent sprains6 RCTs2307RR 0.30 (0.21 to 0.43)Functional support
First-time sprains4 RCTs2933RR 0.69 (0.49 to 0.96)Functional support
Sprains in mixed injured
–non-injured groups
6 RCTs6108RR 0.39 (0.25 to 0.95)Functional support
Muscle activity1 RCT60MD 1.13 (−1.48 to 3.75)None
Stability1 RCT62MD −0.44 (– 0.70 to −0.18)Functional support
Exercise therapyRecurrent sprains10 RCTs1284RR 0.62 (0.51 to 0.76)Exercise
First-time sprains1 RCT173RR 0.45 (0.15 to 1.37)None
Sprains in mixed injured
–non-injured groups
13 RCTs8021RR 0.60 (0.51 to 0.70)Exercise
SurgeryRecurrent sprains12 RCTs1437RR 0.72 (0.55 to 0.94)Surgery
  • Immobilisation: cast; exercise therapy: physical therapy, strength training, proprioceptive training; functional support: brace, tape; surgery, anatomic repair or reconstruction; walker boot.

  • RCTs, randomised controlled trials; RR, relative risk; (S) MD, standardised mean difference.