Table 1

Visible signs (VS) of possible concussion (following a direct or indirect hit to the head)

Visible signDefinition
Loss of consciousness/lying motionlessA player who is not moving or fails to reflexively protect or brace himself while falling after contact.
Slow to get upA player who is hit in the head and takes longer than is typical to get up to his skates.
Motor incoordination/balance problemsA player who displays slow/laboured skating or stumbles while skating.
Blank or vacant lookA player who exhibits a vacant look or abnormalities are observed in eye position.
DisorientationPlayer appears to be unsure of where he is on the ice or bench.
Clutching of head after hitPlayer makes a distinct and sustained motion to grab/clutch his head (including face) or helmet with one or both hands after a contact. Exclusion: player fixing or correcting placement of helmet following contact.
Visible facial injury in combination with any of the abovePlayer suffers a visible facial injury (including ears) in which blood is observed and one of the other six VS is present.