Table 5

Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, positive likelihood ratio and negative likelihood ratio for multiple signs/combinations of signs predicting subsequent concussion diagnoses

SignSensitivitySpecificityPositive predictive valueNegative predictive valuePositive likelihood ratioNegative likelihood ratio
One or more signs47%
(39.5% to 53.7%)
0%
(0% to 0.5%)
11%
(8.9% to 13.2%)
0%
(0% to 3.4%)
0.47
(0.40 to 0.54)
Two or more signs25%
(19.0% to 31.3%)
66%
(63.0% to 69.8%)
16%
(12.3% to 20.9%)
77% (73.6% to 80.2%)0.74
(0.57 to 0.96)
1.13
(1.03 to 1.24)
Three or more signs6%
(3.1% to 10.2%)
96%
(94.5% to 97.4%)
29%
(15.7% to 44.6%)
80%
(76.8% to 82.1%)
1.52
(0.79 to 2.91)
0.98
(0.94 to 1.02)
Four or more signs0%
(0% to 2.7%)
100%
(98.9% to 100%)
25%
(0.63% to 80.6%)
79%
(76.5% to 81.7%)
1.27
(0.13 to 12.10)
1.00
(0.99 to 1.01)
Five or more signs0%
(0% to 2.7%)
100%
(99.5% to 100%)
100%
(2.5% to 100%)
79%
(76.5% to 81.8%)
1.00
(0.99 to 1.0)
LOC or motor22%
(16.7% to 28.7%)
89%
(86.2% to 90.8%)
34%
(26.1% to 42.8%)
81%
(78.4% to 83.8%)
1.96
(1.42 to 2.72)
0.88
(0.81 to 0.95)
LOC or motor or blank23%
(17.2% to 29.2%)
89%
(86.2% to 90.8%)
35%
(26.6% to 43.3%)
81%
(78.5% to 83.9%)
2.01
(1.46 to 2.77)
0.87
(0.80 to 0.94)
  • 95% CIs in parentheses.

  • LOC, loss of consciousness.