Table 5

Constitutional/biomechanical factors and prevalence of hip osteoarthritis (n=597)

FactorsPrevalence (%)OR (95% CI)
CrudeAdjusted 1Adjusted 2
Age (years)
 40–5913/256 (5.1)111
 ≥6053/341 (15.5)3.44 (1.83 to 6.46)***3.44 (1.80 to 6.57)***2.93 (1.48 to 5.82)**
BMI (kg/m2)
 Normal (<25)39/359 (10.9)111
 Overweight (25 to <30)23/180 (12.8)1.20 (0.69 to 2.08)1.18 (0.67 to 2.09)1.19 (0.66 to 2.17)
 Obese (≥30)4/53 (7.5)0.67 (0.23 to 1.96)0.58 (0.20 to 1.72)0.48 (0.16 to 1.45)
Sex
 Male45/356 (12.6)111
 Female21/241 (8.7)0.66 (0.38 to 1.14)0.90 (0.51 to 1.61)0.90 (0.49 to 1.65)
Hip injury
 No56/553 (10.1)111
 Yes9/18 (50.0)8.88 (3.38 to 23.28)***10.01 (3.61 to 27.75)***10.85 (3.80 to 30.96)***
Knee alignment, 20s
 Normal59/519 (11.4)11
 Varus4/43 (9.3)0.80 (0.28 to 2.32)0.74 (0.25 to 2.17)
 Valgus3/17 (17.6)1.67 (0.47 to 5.99)1.64 (0.45 to 6.04)
Sport: weight-bearing
 No19/232 (8.2)11
 Yes47/365 (12.9)1.66 (0.95 to 2.90)1.61 (0.91 to 2.85)
Hypermobility, 20s
 ≤3/9 Beighton47/435 (10.8)11
 ≥4/9 Beighton6/69 (8.7)0.79 (0.32 to 1.92)1.01 (0.40 to 2.53)
Comorbidities
 No15/207 (7.2)111
 119/215 (8.8)1.24 (0.61 to 2.51)1.11 (0.54 to 2.27)1.37 (0.65 to 2.90)
 2 or more32/175 (18.3)2.86 (1.50 to 5.49)**2.18 (1.10 to 4.31)*2.46 (1.19 to 5.06)*
Index:ring finger ratio
 Index=ring18/157 (11.5)11
 Index>ring6/57 (10.5)0.91 (0.34 to 2.42)1.14 (0.41 to 3.13)
 Index<ring38/362 (10.5)0.91 (0.50 to 1.64)0.70 (0.38 to 1.31)
Finger nodes
 No61/549 (11.1)11
 Yes4/39 (10.3)0.91 (0.31 to 2.66)0.84 (0.28 to 2.54)
Sport: impact
 No53/487 (10.9)11
 Yes13/110 (11.8)1.10 (0.58 to 2.09)1.00 (0.51 to 1.95)
Widespread pain
 No58/555 (10.5)11
 Yes2/12 (16.7)1.71 (0.37 to 8.01)1.80 (0.36 to 8.99)
  • Adjusted 1: OR was adjusted for a priori confounders of age, sex and BMI.

  • Adjusted 2: a mutually adjusted model was fitted of the a priori confounders plus any significant factors/variables.

  • *P<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p<0.001.

  • BMI, body mass index.