Table 3

Final consensus statements and levels of agreement

Domain 1: golf’s association with health and mechanisms% Agreement
a. Relationship of golf with health outcomes
 The best available evidence suggests playing golf regularly is associated with increased longevity.100
 Playing golf regularly can improve known risk factors for cardiovascular disease (eg, blood lipids and body composition).100
 As a physical activity, golf is likely to reduce the risk of chronic conditions including cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, colon and breast cancer, depression and dementia.96
 Playing golf is associated with mental well-being benefits which can include improved self-esteem, self-worth, self-efficacy and social connections.100
 Playing/involvement with golf can positively influence health for individuals with disability.100
 Playing golf can contribute to healthy and active ageing, providing physical and mental health, cognitive, social, functional and other benefits.100
 The annual incidence of injury playing golf is moderate compared with other sports, while the risk of injury per hour played is low compared with other sports.96
 Serious injury is rare, although accidental head injury sustained from being struck by a ball or club can have serious consequences.96
 While moderate sun exposure can offer benefits, golfers can be exposed to increased risk of skin cancer associated with excess sun exposure if appropriate care and consideration is not taken.100
 The magnitude of health benefits/health problems will depend on many factors including age, gender, genetic factors and the existing fitness/wellness of the participant, the topography of the course and frequency of play.100
 While a significant body of evidence exists relating to golf and health, further high-quality research is needed.100
 High-quality research is needed to assess relationships between golf and mental health/well-being, the contribution of golf to muscle strength and balance, benefits to particular populations, and to explore cause and effect nature of associations between golf and health.100
b. Mechanisms to achieve health
 Golf can provide health-enhancing physical activity for persons of all ages.100
 Playing golf can provide moderate-intensity aerobic physical activity.100
 The relative intensity of physical activity while playing golf can vary with topography and length of the course, environmental conditions, and the age, gender and baseline fitness of the participant.100
 Health benefits are likely greater for those walking the course as opposed to riding a golf cart (for those who are able).100
 Benefits accrued by those playing golf riding a golf cart may include health-enhancing physical activity, social connections and green exercise while the intensity of physical activity is lower compared with those playing and walking the course.92
 Playing golf is likely to provide strength and balance benefits for older adults.100
 Spectating in an active fashion (eg, walking the course) at golf courses/tournaments offers an opportunity for health-enhancing physical activity.100
 Playing golf outside can provide a form of green exercise and nature connection which can be enhanced in naturalistic courses.100
 Golf offers opportunities for intergenerational connection, for social interaction and to support communities with events of interest.100
 Taking part in physical activities additional to golf is likely to offer golfers further health benefits.100
c. Dose and effect
 Adults should do at least 150 min of moderate-intensity aerobic physical activity (which could include golf) throughout the week or do at least 75 min of vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity throughout the week, or an equivalent combination of moderate and vigorous-intensity activity to meet the WHO recommendations.100
 Participation in golf/other physical activities over and above the minimum physical activity guidelines is likely to offer additional benefits compared with those just reaching the minimum recommendations.96
 Being physically active/playing golf regularly throughout life provides greater benefits than being active/playing golf intermittently.100