Domain 3: interventions and knowledge transfer% Agreement
a. Interventions
 Interventions to make the sport more inclusive and welcoming should be supported.96
 More interventions are required to increase access and participation, building on theories around engagement, enjoyment and including effective monitoring and evaluation aspects.96
 The health benefits of golf will be enhanced by appropriate partnership within and outwith the golf sector (eg, with health or education sector organisations).100
b. Actions for golfers/participants
 Golfers should aim to play golf at least 150 min/week, or engage in other forms of moderate to vigorous physical activities additional to golf.100
 Golfers should be encouraged to walk the course, as opposed to riding a golf cart to obtain optimal health benefits if able.100
 Golfers should be encouraged to make others feel welcome, and support others to enjoy golf.100
 Golfers should warm up with some aerobic exercise, then golf-specific mobility exercises, then practice swings to maximise performance and minimise injury risk.100
 Golfers should be encouraged to maintain hydration (drinking when thirsty and having fluids available) while on the course, particularly in hot and/or humid conditions.100
 Appropriate strength and conditioning exercises can decrease injury and illness risk, and improve performance.100
 Golfers should use sunscreen and appropriate clothing (collared shirt, hat, and so on) as appropriate, and moderate exposure to direct sunlight.100
 Education should be sought regarding playing safely. Children should be adequately supervised.100
 Spectators at golf tournaments can be encouraged to walk, and spectate in an active fashion.100
 Golfers should follow appropriate lightning safety guidelines, and discontinue play if there is danger from lightning.96
 Golf carts when driven should be done so responsibly, and following local guidance including minimum age requirements.100
 Golfers with cardiovascular disease can play with acceptable safety, but should see a doctor should symptoms increase or be unstable.96
 Golfers can be expected to return to golf following total knee, hip or shoulder replacement, with a graduated return to golf.100
c. Actions for facilities/the golf industry
 Golf facilities and the golf industry should communicate key actions including those generated in this consensus related to golf and health to players, and potential players in a consistent and engaging fashion, appropriate to their context.100
 Grass-roots initiatives supporting development of golf in regions/countries where golf is a relatively new sport can help encourage growth in these areas.100
 Golf facilities and the golf industry should build on existing initiatives promoting inclusivity, and encourage increased participation, by developing environments and price structures that are welcoming to all.100
 Golf facilities and other golf industry leaders and stakeholders should commit and can work together to develop an environment that will inspire and recruit more women and girls to play golf and retain their participation in the game.96
 Golf facilities and the golf industry should encourage effective learning and coaching environments, and support entry-level play, building on existing initiatives.96
 Golf facilities should consider the preferences of the average golfer when setting up the golf course, for example, length of holes and course, depth and nature of rough, severity of hazards, hole positions, and where necessary make adjustments.80
 Facilities should make every effort to promote equality and diversity, and make golf accessible.100
 Golf facilities where possible should consider being multifunctional (having facilities in addition to golf; eg, gym, walking routes or child care) and having diversity of golf facilities.88
 Golf facilities and the golf industry should promote practices that enhance sustainability—maximising opportunities for wildlife conservation, interaction with green space, restricting water, energy and pesticide/chemical use.100
 Golf facilities should be encouraged to provide information and facilities to support golfers warming up to play.100
 The golf industry/golf facilities should encourage players to walk the course if able, and avoid mandatory golf cart use at facilities.96
 The golf industry/golf facilities can encourage and facilitate regular physical activity and other health-enhancing behaviours (eg, healthy eating).96
 The golf industry should educate and protect employees and golfers about the risks of excess sun exposure.96
 Golf facilities should stock sunscreen, hats and collared shirts.92
 Golf facilities and the golf industry should continue to support health and safety regulations, membership of professional organisations, education relating to safe play, and ensure adequate supervision of children.96
 Golf facilities should consider providing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training to staff, and provide automatic external defibrillators.92
 Golf carts should be well maintained, with speed limiters and front wheel brakes.92
 Appropriate lightning safety policies and education should be enacted at each facility. Guidance for appropriate action for players should be highlighted by golf facilities and the golf industry.96
d. Actions for policy/decision makers (outwith golf sector)
 The benefits of regular physical activity including playing golf should be communicated and promoted regularly for persons of all ages, genders and socioeconomic backgrounds.100
 Cross-sectoral policies should be delivered that support the WHO Global Action Plan on Physical Activity, and the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals.92
 Policymakers can be confident golf can provide health-enhancing physical activity to persons of all ages and genders. Policy documents, frameworks and actions should support this.100
 Policymakers should where relevant include golf as a moderate-intensity physical activity in policy documents, guidance and recommendation, and encourage participation for persons of all ages and genders.100
 Policy should support play by diverse geographical and socioeconomic participants of all genders, ages and abilities.100
 Policy documents, frameworks and actions can where relevant usefully acknowledge green space, health and well-being, nature connection, social and community, local and national economic benefits of golf.96
 Policymakers should support efforts to encourage spectators to be physically active (eg, walking the course) at golf and other sporting events.100
 Policies should promote multifunctionality (having facilities in addition to golf) and diversity of facilities where possible, and sustainable practices.84
 Policymakers should work collaboratively with the golf industry and national associations to promote increased participation in physical activity/golf, particularly in groups with low levels of physical activity.96
 Policymakers, governing bodies and the golf industry can work collaboratively to gain acceptance from the International Paralympic Committee that golf be included in the Paralympics.92
  • % Agreement is the percentage of expert group members selecting ‘agree’ or ‘strongly agree’.