Table 1

Demographic, clinical and echocardiographic characteristics of the study population according to age

ParameterAdolescent athletes (a)
Young adult athletes (b)
Older adult athletes (c)
P values
Height, cm177±12179±11180±110.019
Weight, kg69±13*†74±15‡77±15‡<0.001
BSA, m2 1.84±0.22*†1.92±0.24‡1,95±0,24‡<0.001
BMI, kg/m2 22±2*†23±3‡†24±3‡*<0.001
Waist circumference, cm81±6*† 83±8‡†86±9‡<0.001
Body fat, %16±7†17±6†20±6‡<0.001
Systolic BP, mm Hg111±12*†114±12‡116 ± 11‡<0.001
Diastolic BP, mm Hg69±8*†73±8‡74±9‡<0.001
Heart rate, bpm60±10*†57±11‡57±11‡<0.001
Glucose, mg/dL93±7†93±7 c 95±9‡0.002
Total cholesterol, mg/dL171±33*†182±34‡†191±34‡<0.001
HDL, mg/dL64±17†66±16†59±15‡<0.001
LDL, mg/dL95±27*†103±28‡116±31‡<0.001
Triglycerides, mg/dL69±31*†77±37‡†86±41‡<0.001
Positive family history, n (%)52 (18)94 (17)39 (20)0.573
Max. exercise load, watt231±56*†253±61‡244±59‡<0.001
Peak systolic BP, mm Hg178±21*†184±23‡184±21‡<0.001
Peak diastolic BP, mm Hg70±8*†75±9‡†77±9‡<0.001
LV wall thickness, mm9±1*†10±1‡10±1‡<0.001
LV cavity diameter, mm51±4*†53±5‡53±4‡<0.001
Ejection fraction, %65±665±665±60.967
Left atrial diameter, mm33±4*†35±4‡†36±4‡<0.001
Aortic root, mm29±3*†30±4‡†32±4‡<0.001
LV mass index, g/m2 90±18*†101±23‡100±20‡<0.001
E/A ratio2.0±0.5*†1.9±0.5‡†1.7±0.6‡<0.001
TDI e’, cm/s14±2*†14±2‡†13±2‡<0.001
E/e’ ratio6.6±1.36.5±1.46.3±1.50.246
  • *Young adult athletes.

  • †Older adult athletes.

  • ‡Adolescent athletes.

  • BMI, body mass index; BP, blood pressure; BSA, body surface area; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; LV, left ventricular; max, maximum; TDI, tissue Doppler imaging.