Table 1

Cardiovascular screening components used by responding countries participating in the PyeongChang 2018 Paralympic Winter Games

ComponentAll athletes
n (%)
Most athletes
n (%)
Some athletes
n (%)
Few athletes
n (%)
No athletes
n (%)
Personal history20 (76.9)5 (19.2)1 (3.8)00
Family history19 (73.1)5 (19.2)1 (3.8)01 (3.8)
Physical exam19 (73.1)5 (19.2)1 (3.8)01 (3.8)
ECG19 (73.1)3 (11.5)2 (7.7)1 (3.8)1 (3.8)
Echo7 (26.9)2 (7.7)6 (23.1)2 (7.7)9 (34.6)
Stress test6 (23.1)4 (15.4)4 (15.4)3 (11.5)9 (34.6)
PHx, FHx, PE19 (73.1)5 (19.2)1 (3.8)01 (3.8)
PHx, FHx, PE, ECG18 (69.2)4 (15.4)1 (3.8)1 (3.8)2 (7.7)
PHx, FHx, PE, ECG, echo7 (26.9)2 (7.7)6 (23.1)2 (7.7)9 (34.6)
PHx, FHx, PE, ECG, echo, stress4 (15.4)4 (15.4)4 (15.4)3 (11.5)11 (42.3)
  • Echo, echocardiogram; FHx, family history; PE, physical exam; PHx, personal history.