Table 3

Psychometric properties of sideline assessment tests*

AuthorType of athletesAthletes (n)ConcussedControlsTest and/or criterionSensitivity (%)Specificity (%)Test–retest reliabilityAUC
 McCrea et al 19 College football1631945689100
 Putukian et al 22 College athletes2633223SCAT284100
 Chin et al 23 High school and college athletes20181661640.88
 Resch et al 120 College athletes4040Revised Head Injury Scale98100
 Garcia et al 40 College athletes733SCAT393970.98
 Broglio et al 33 College athletes43600.40†
 Total 3192 1065 283
Standardized Assessment of Concussion
 Barr and McCrea15 High school and college football131350683-point decline72940.55‡
 McCrea et al 19 High school and college football132563553-point decline78950.48§
 McCrea et al 17 High school and college football238591<10th percentile of normative79
 McCrea et al 19 College football16319456?8091
 Echlin et al 121 Ice hockey (age 16–21)67211-point decline54
 Barr et al 16 High school and college football8235931?4687
 Marinides et al 20 College athletes217302-point decline5282
 Galetta et al 21 Hockey/lacrosse youth/college33212142-point decline20210.68
 Putukian et al 22 College athletes2633223<10th percentile of normative4191
 Chin et al 23 High school and college athletes20181661640.39†0.56
 Broglio et al 33 College athletes48740.39†
 Total 15 284 618 411
 McCrea et al 19 College football16319456Modified BESS3695
 Broglio et al 122 Young adults48BESS0.60¶
 Barr et al 16 High school and college football8235931Modified BESS3171
 Putukian et al 22 College athletes2633223Modified BESS25100
 Chin et al 23 High school and college athletes2018166164Modified BESS0.54†0.56
 Broglio et al 33 College athletes2894BESS0.41†
 Total 4735 351 274
Oculomotor (KD)
 Galetta et al 27 Football, men’s/women’s basketball21910Worsening of KD time100
 Leong et al 123 BoxingWorsening of KD >5 s1001000.9†
 Galetta et al 21 Hockey/lacrosse youth/college3321214Worsening of KD time75930.92
 Leong et al 28 College football, men’s/women’s basketball12711Worsening of KD time890.95†
 King et al 124 Amateur rugby941000.92†
 Marinides et al 20 Football, women’s lacrosse, soccer21730Worsening of KD time79
 Seidman et al 24 High school football3439Worsening of KD time100100
 Dhawan et al 29 Youth hockey14120Worsening of KD >5 s10091
 Fuller et al 125 Elite English rugby145Worsening of KD time60390.51
 Hecimovich et al 126 Australian football2222Worsening of KD time98960.91†
Professional football12238463Worsening of KD84620.88†
 Broglio et al 33 College athletes7550.74†
 Eddy et al 127 Recreational college athletes630.90†
 Total 2041 310 99
Clinical reaction time (dropped weighted stick)
 Eckner128 College football, wrestling, women’s soccer1020.65†
 Eckner et al 47 High school and college athletes282890% CI5086
 Broglio et al 33 College athletes2610.32†
  • Test–retest reliability:

  • *Study selection criteria: athletes competing at any level of sport using any sideline screening assessment or studies with test–retest reliability of included assessments. All studies were of high risk of bias as assessed using Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies - 2, except for Fuller et al,125 which was of low risk of bias.

  • †Intraclass correlation coefficient.

  • ‡Reliable change index.

  • §Pearson’s correlation coefficient.

  • ¶Generalisability coefficient.

  • AUC, area under the curve; KD, King-Devick; SCAT, Sports Concussion Assessment Tool.