Table 1

Risk factors linked to hamstring strain injuries, either through prospective, retrospective or anecdotal evidence. The table shows the typical manner in which our team would classify the risk factors associated with hamstring strain injury

ImportantSemi-important
(implement where possible)
Recognised but does not inform normal practice
Specific risk factorsGeneral risk factors
Previous hamstring injury14–16 ACWR (all parameters)48–51 BFlh muscle/tendon architecture83–85 Wisdom teeth/dental hygiene86
Hamstring eccentric strength (fresh)30 32 33 Lumbopelvic hip stability15 62–66 Glute dominant hip extension patternTMJ dysfunction
Weekly speed exposure44 Functional strength72 73 SIJ kinematics
Hamstring fatigue resistance79 82 87 ACWR (HSR/vHSR)52 Muscle fascicle length30
Psychosocial factors57 Tib/Fib joint
Individual recovery rates/strategies (sleep, rest, nutrition, massage, cryotherapy, hydrotherapy)Environmental factors (eg, playing surface, travel, location of match, footwear, and so on)
Time between games88
Movement quality
Previous recent injury (any)
Aerobic fitness74
  • ACWR, acute:chronic workload ratio; BFlh, biceps femoris long head; Fib, fibula; HSR, high-speed running; SIJ, sacroiliac joint; Tib, tibia; TMJ, temporomandibular joint; vHSR, very high-speed running.