Table 3

National and international temporal trends in mean CRF (per decade) from 965 264 children aged 9–17 years from 19 countries between 1981 and 2014

GroupAbsolute changes in mL/kg/min (95% CI)Per cent changes (95% CI)
Pre-2000Post-2000Pre-2000Post-2000
Poland−7.6 (−8.1 to 7.1)−2.4 (−2.7 to 2.1)−17.8 (−18.9 to 16.7)−5.2 (−5.8 to 4.6)
Lithuania−5.0 (−5.2 to 4.8)−5.0 (−5.4 to –4.6)−11.2 (−11.7 to 10.7)−11.2 (−12.0 to 10.4)
South Africa−4.8 (−5.8 to 3.8)−1.5 (−2.2 to 0.8)−10.9 (−13.2 to 8.6)−3.6 (−5.2 to 2.0)
Portugal−3.7 (−4.7 to 2.7)−0.8 (−1.1 to 0.5)−8.0 (−10.0 to 6.0)−1.7 (−2.4 to 1.0)
Australia−3.5 (−3.9 to 3.1)−0.4 (−0.7 to 0.1)−7.9 (−8.8 to 7.0)−0.9 (−1.6 to 0.2)
Seychelles−3.1 (−3.2 to 3.0)−3.1 (−3.3 to 2.9)−7.3 (−7.6 to 7.0)−7.3 (−7.7 to 6.9)
France−2.6 (−2.9 to 2.3)−3.4 (−3.5 to 3.3)−5.4 (−6.1 to 4.7)−7.9 (−8.2 to 7.6)
Canada−2.2 (−2.4 to 2.0)0.4 (0.2 to 0.6)−4.8 (−5.2 to 4.4)0.9 (0.6 to  1.2)
Hungary−1.7 (−1.9 to 1.5)−1.7 (−1.9 to 1.5)−4.4 (−5.0 to 3.8)−4.1 (−4.7 to 3.5)
Greece−1.2 (−1.4 to 1.0)0.1 (−0.1 to 0.3)−3.0 (−3.5 to 2.5)0.1 (−0.3 to 0.5)
Belgium−1.1 (−1.4 to 0.8)2.0 (1.5 to 2.5)−2.5 (−3.1 to 1.9)4.2 (3.0 to  5.4)
Spain−1.1 (−1.3 to 0.9)−0.3 (−0.5 to 0.1)−2.7 (−3.1 to 2.3)−0.7 (−1.1 to 0.3)
Italy−0.7 (−0.9 to 0.5)−0.6 (−1.0 to 0.2)−1.7 (−2.3 to 1.1)−1.8 (−3.1 to 0.5)
The Netherlands−0.7 (−0.9 to 0.5)−0.5 (−0.8 to 0.2)−1.7 (−2.2 to 1.2)−1.1 (−1.9 to 0.3)
Estonia−0.2 (−0.4 to  0.0)−0.2 (−0.5 to 0.1)−0.3 (−0.6 to  0.0)−0.4 (−1.0 to  0.2)
UK0.2 (0.0 to  0.4)−2.4 (−2.6 to 2.2)0.5 (0.0 to 1.0)−5.2 (−5.6 to 4.8)
USA0.3 (−0.4 to  1.0)−1.1 (−1.4 to 0.8)0.8 (−0.9 to  2.5)−2.6 (−3.2 to 2.0)
Brazil0.7 (−0.3 to 1.7)1.3 (0.8 to 1.8)1.3 (−1.0 to  3.6)3.4 (2.1 to 4.7)
Japan1.9 (1.6 to 2.2)1.4 (1.3 to 1.5)3.8 (3.3 to  4.3)2.8 (2.7 to 2.9)
Boys−1.9 (−2.0 to 1.8)−0.6 (−0.7 to 0.5)−4.2 (−4.5 to 3.9)−1.4 (−1.7 to 1.1)
Girls−1.2 (−1.3 to 1.1)−0.3 (−0.4 to 0.2)−3.0 (−3.3 to 2.7)−0.6 (−0.9 to 0.3)
Children
(aged 9–12 years)
−1.6 (−1.7 to 1.5)−0.7 (−0.8 to 0.6)−3.5 (−3.8 to 3.2)−1.7 (−1.9 to 1.4)
Adolescents
(aged 13–17 years)
−1.6 (−1.7 to 1.5)−0.1 (−0.2 to 0.0)−3.8 (−4.1 to 3.5)−0.3 (−0.5 to –0.1)
All−1.6 (−1.7 to 1.5)−0.4 (−0.5 to –0.3)−3.6 (−3.8 to 3.4)−0.9 (−1.1 to –0.7)
  • Note: positive changes in means indicate increases in mean CRF and negative values indicate declines.

  • CRF, cardiorespiratory fitness.