Table 2

Application of the principles of exercise training and outcomes in exercise intervention studies in breast cancer survivors

Authors, yearSpPrOVIVRevDRSignificant results
Aerobic exercise only
 Al-Majid et al, 201526 ++++??VO2 peak
 Anulika Aweto et al, 201527 +?NRNRNR+↓ RBP, SaO2; ↑ FVC (PostM), ↑ VO2 peak (PreM)
 Courneya et al, 200385 +++NRNRNR↑ VO2 peak*, QoL*, PPO, VO2 and PO at VEO2/VECO2
 Daley et al, 200786 +NRNR++NR↑ QoL*, Aer fitness
 Dolan et al, 2016 (Int)28 +++NRNRNR↑ VO2 peak*, 1RM; ↓ BW, WHR, RHR (vs CON)
 Dolan et al, 2016 (Cont)28 ↑ VO2 peak*, 1RM; ↓ WHR, RHR (vs CON)
 Drouin et al, 200587 +NR++NRNR↑ VO2 peak*
 Giallauria et al, 201629 +NR+?NRNR↑ VO2 peak, endothelial function; WC, BMI, O2 pulse
 Hornsby et al, 201430 ++++NR?↔ AEs*; ↑ VO2 peak; PPO, endothelial progenitor cells; ↓ O2 pulse; some serum cytokines; tumour gene expression
 Irwin et al, 200988 NR+?+NRNR↓ %BF, ↑ LBM
 Kim et al, 200689 +?++NRNR↓ RSBP*, RHR*, max SBP*, ↑ VO2 peak*
 Matthews et al, 200790 ?+NR?NRNRNone
 Mehnert et al, 201131 ?NR?NRNRNR↑ VO2 peak
 Milecki et al, 201332 +NRNR+NRNR↓ RBP, ↑ 6MWT
 Mock et al, 199491 +?NRNRNRNR↑ 12MWT
 Mock et al, 199792 +???NRNR↑ 12MWT
 Mock et al, 200593 NR+??NRNR↑ 12MWT
 Mowafy et al, 201633 +NR++NRNR↑ VO2 peak, total leucocytes
 Murtezani et al, 201434 +?NRNRNRNR↑ QoL*, 12MWT
 Naraphong et al, 201535 +?NR+NR?↑ 12MWT
 Nikander et al, 200794 ?+NRNRNRNR↓ Figure 8 run*, ↑ ground reaction force
 Pinto et al, 200395 ++++NRNR↓ BP at rest, 75W, peak, HR at 75W
 Pinto et al, 200596 ++NR+??↓ 1MW
 Rogers et al, 200997 ????NR NR↑ Strength, left grip strength, ↓ WHR
 Rogers et al, 201536 ++?+??↑ SR PA (3, 6 m)*, objPA (3 m)*, VO2 peak (6 m)
 Saarto et al, 201237 +??+NRNR↑ BMD*, femoral neck (PreM)*; 2kmWT (PreM), figure 8 run, grip strength, femoral neck centroid
 Segal et al, 2001 (Sup)98 +??+NRNRNone
 Segal et al, 2001 (Home)98 None
 Swisher et al, 201538 ?NR++NRNR↓ BW*, BMI*, BF%*
 Wang et al, 201139 ++?+NR+↑ 6MWT
Resistance exercise only
 Cormie et al, 2013 (High)40 ++++NRNRNo ↑ lymphoedema*, ↑ chest press (1RM, endurance), seated row (1RM)
 Cormie et al, 2013 (Low)40 No ↑ lymphoedema*, ↑ chest press (1RM, endurance), seated row (1RM, endurance)
 Hagstrom et al, 201641 ++++NRNR↑ 1RM, upper body strength; ↓ NK TNF-a, NKT TNF-a*
 Schmidt et al, 201243 ???+NR+↓ RPE at 50, 75, 100W
 Schmidt et al, 201542 ++++NRNR↑ IsoM and isoK strength
 Schmitz et al, 200599 ++++NR+↓ %BF*, ↑ LBM*, ↓ IGF-2
 Schmitz et al, 2009100 ++++NRNRNo ↑ lymphoedema*, ↑ 1RM
 Steindorf et al, 201444 ++++NRNR↑ Strength (knee flex, shoulder internal and external rotation), ↓ fatigue*, HC, IL-6, IL-6/IL-1ra
 Twiss et al, 2009101 +NRNR+NRNR↑ BMD*, strength, balance
 Winters-Stone et al, 201145 ++++++↑ Spine BMD*, bench press, leg press (12-month, 1-year follow-up subset), no ↑ osteocalcin*
 Winters-Stone et al, 201346 ++++++↑ 1RM (chest press); ↓ %BF
Aerobic and resistance exercise
 Anderson et al, 201247 +?+NRNRNR↑ 6MWT*
 Battaglini et al, 2007102 +?+NRNRNR↑ LBM, ↓ BF, ↑ sum 1RM
 Campbell et al, 2005103 ?NRNRNRNRNR↑ 12MWT
 Cantarero-Villanueva et al, 201348 +?NR+?NR↓ Fatigue*, ↑ sit-stand, trunk curl
 Casla et al, 201549 +++NR??↑ VO2 peak*, isoM strength, 8RM, muscle endurance, LBM; ↓ FM
 Cornette et al, 201650 ???+??None
 DeLuca et al, 201651 +++?NRNR↑ VO2 peak, est 1RM; ↓ %BF
 Demark-Wahnefried et al, 2008104 +NRNR+NRNR↓ %BF without trunk
 Do et al, 201550 +??NR?+↔ Aer fitness (EoS and 8 weeks)
 Hayes et al, 2013 (Tele)56 +??+NR?↑ QoL*, Aer fitness
 Hayes et al, 2013 (FtF)56 ↑ QoL*, Aer fitness
 Galiano-Castillo et al, 201653 +NRNRNR??↑ Strength
 Greenlee et al, 201354 ++?+??↓ BW*
 Haines et al, 201055 +?NR+?+↑ QoL (some domains)*; ↓ 30 cm proximal limb circumference
 Heim et al, 2007105 +NRNR+NRNR↓ Fatigue
 Herrero et al, 2006106 ++++NRNR↑ VO2 peak, peak PO, leg press, LBM, ↓ sit-stand time, %BF
 Husebø et al, 201457 ?NRNR+??↓ Fatigue (EoS)
 Irwin et al, 201558 +??+NR+↑ LBM, BMD; ↓ arthralgia*, BMI, %BF
 Kaltsatou et al, 201159 +?NRNRNRNR↑ Grip strength, 6MWT
 Kim et al, 201660 ??NR+NRNRNone
 Ligibel et al, 2008107 +??+NRNR↓ Fasting insulin*, WC, HC
 Martin et al, 2013 (Trad)61 +?NR?NRNR↑ Muscular endurance (vs CON)
 Martin et al, 2013 (MVe)61 ↑ Muscular endurance (vs CON)
 Milne et al, 2008108 +?NR+NRNR↑ QoL*, Aer fitness, strength
 Mutrie et al, 200777 ?NRNR+++↑ 12MWT
 Naumann et al, 201262 +NR?+NRNR↑ Bench press, VO2 peak (ex and  ex+couns vs couns)
 Nieman et al, 1995109 +??NRNRNR↓ 6MWT
 Portela et al, 2008 (Sup)63 +?NRNRNR+None
 Portela et al, 2008 (Home)63 ↑ 12MWT
 Rahnama et al, 201064 ++?+NRNRVO2 peak, HDL; ↓ BW, BMI, WHR, SBP, TG, insulin, glucose, RHR
 Rao et al, 201265 ?NRNR+NRNRNone
 Rogers et al, 201366 +??+NRNR↑ VO2 peak, ↓ leptin
 Rogers et al, 201467 +?NR+NRNRNone
 Scott et al, 201368 +NRNR+NRNR↑ Aer fitness, HDL; ↓ WC*, WHR*, RDBP, leptin, TC, HDL, cortisol rhythm, total leucocyte, lymphocyte; CD3+CD4+% cell count
 Travier et al, 201569 +?++??Smaller ↑ fatigue*; ↑ VO2 and W at VT (18 w), lower body strength
 Uhm et al, 201770 ???NRNR+None
 Visovsky et al, 201471 ??NR+?+None
Aerobic or resistance exercise (multiarm trials)
 Buchan et al, 2016 (Aer)72 +?NR??+↔ Lymphoedema*; ↑ lower-body endurance, LBM (12 w); ↑ 6MWT, upper-body strength (24 w)
 Buchan et al, 2016 (Res)72 +?NR??+↔ Lymphoedema*; ↑6MWT, lower-body endurance, upper-body strength; ↑ upper-body strength (vs Aer)
 Courneya et al, 2007 (Aer)110 ++++NRNR↑ VO2 peak, no ↑ lymphoedema
 Courneya et al, 2007 (Res)110 ++++NRNR↑ VO2 peak, 1RM, BW, BF, LBM, no ↑ lymphoedema
 Courneya et al, 2013 (Low)73 ++++??↑ 1RM bench press (vs high)
 Courneya et al, 2013 (High)73 ++++??↑ VO2 peak versus Aer+Res
 Courneya et al, 2013 (Aer+Res)73 +?++??↑ 1RM, endurance (vs high); ↑ 1RM, upper-body endurance (vs low); ↑ 1RM, endurance, LBM (pre–post)
 Musanti et al, 2012 (Aer)74 +???NRNRNone
 Musanti et al, 2012 (Res)74 +???NRNR↑ 6RM, endurance (chest press, curl-up)
 Musanti et al, 2012 (Aer+Res)74 +???NRNR↑ 6RM, endurance (chest press, curl-up)
 Schmidt et al, 2015 (Res)75 +NR++NRNR↑ Bench press, pull down, ↓ RPE at max
 Schmidt et al, 2015 (Aer)75 +NR?+NRNR↑ Bench press, ↓ RPE at max
 Schwartz et al, 2007 (Aer)111 ++NR?NRNR↑ BMD*, strength, 12MWT
 Schwartz et al, 2007 (Res)111 ++NR?NRNRNR
 van Waart et al, 2015 (Sup)76 +?++??↑ PPO*, endurance*, elbow flex*, knee ext*, grip strength*; ↓ fatigue*
 van Waart et al, 2015 (Home)76 +NR++??↑ Endurance* (EoS)
 Yuen et al, 2007 (Aer)112 +NRNR+NRNR↓ Fatigue*
 Yuen et al, 2007 (Res)112 NRNRNR+NRNR↑ 6MWT
  • *Primary outcome.

  • 1MW, 1 mile walk; 2kmWT, 2 km walk time; 6, 12MWT: 6, 12 min walk test; AE, adverse event; Aer, aerobic; BF, body fat; BMD, bone mineral density; BMI, body mass index; BP, blood pressure; BW, body weight; CON, control; Cont, continuous; Couns: counselling; DR, diminishing returns; EoS, end of study; Ex, exercise; FM, fat mass; FtF, face-to-face; FVC, forced vital capacity; HC, hip circumference; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; HR, heart rate; IGF, insulin-like growth factor; IL, interleukin; Int, intervals; isoK, isokinetic; IsoM, isometric; IV, initial values; LBM, lean body mass; NK, natural killer cell; NR, not reported; obj, objective; OV, overload; PA, physical activity; PO, power output; PostM, postmenopausal; PPO, peak power output; Pr, progression; PreM, premenopausal; QoL, quality of life; RBP, resting blood pressure; Res: resistance; RHR, resting heart rate; RM, repetition max; RPE, rating of perceived exertion; RDBP, resting diastolic blood pressure; Rev, reversibility; RSBP, resting systolic blood pressure; SaO2, oxygen saturation; SBP, systolic blood pressure; Sp, specificity; SR, self-report; Sup, supervised; TC, total cholesterol; Tele, telephone; TG, triglycerides; TNF-a, tumour necrosis factor-alpha; Trad, traditional; VE, ventilatory equivalend; VO2, volume of oxygen consumed; VT, ventilatory threshold; W, watts; w, weeks; WC, waist circumference; WHR, waist-hip ratio. +, clearly reported; ? unclear; NR, not reported