Table 2

Summary of HIIT/SIT versus MOD subgroup meta-analysis on body composition

Outcome (subgroup)Between-group effects
Studies (n)MD (95% CI)P valueHeterogeneity
I(%)P value
Total body fat (%)
 Mode: HIIT23−0.35 (−1.90 to 1.21)0.6678<0.01
 Mode: SIT13−0.04 (−2.02 to 1.94)0.9771<0.01
 Modality: walking/jogging/running14−1.03 (−1.33 to 3.38)0.3986<0.01
 Modality: cycling16−0.88 (−1.93 to 0.17)0.10260.16
 Sex: male100.86 (−1.36 to 3.07)0.4565<0.01
 Sex: female9−1.36 (−3.85 to 1.14)0.2989<0.01
 Age <30 years19−0.23 (−2.08 to 1.62)0.8186<0.01
 Age ≥30 years160.15 (−0.94 to 1.23)0.7900.92
 BMI <30 kg/m2 18−0.81 (−2.54 to 0.93)0.3670<0.01
 BMI ≥30 kg/m2 101.15 (−0.98 to 3.28)0.2977<0.01
 Study quality: low120.44 (−2.11 to 2.98)0.7485<0.01
 Study quality: middle16−0.52 (−2.29 to 1.26)0.5767<0.01
 Study quality: high8−0.89 (−2.13 to 0.36)0.1600.96
 Intervention duration <12 months15−0.03 (−2.11 to 2.05)0.9884<0.01
 Intervention duration ≥12 months21−0.38 (−1.66 to 0.91)0.5653<0.01
 Supervision: yes26−0.71 (−1.85 to 0.44)0.2359<0.01
 Supervision: no101.06 (−1.60 to 3.72)0.4380<0.01
Total fat mass (kg)
 Mode: HIIT10−1.96 (−4.19 to 0.26)0.08560.02
 Mode: SIT5−3.22 (−5.71 to −0.73) 0.01 180.30
 Modality: walking/jogging/running5−5.18 (−8.73 to −1.63) <0.01 670.02
 Modality: cycling9−1.17 (−2.64 to 0.29)0.1200.51
 Sex: male2−0.14 (−3.62 to 3.34)0.9400.37
 Sex: female6−1.23 (−2.83 to 0.38)0.1400.51
 Age <30 years8−3.92 (−6.36 to −1.49) <0.01 63<0.01
 Age ≥30 years70.19 (−1.94 to 2.32)0.8600.85
 BMI <30 kg/m2 8−1.36 (−3.03 to 0.26)0.1000.54
 BMI ≥30 kg/m2 3−2.75 (−5.77 to 0.27)0.0800.79
 Study quality: low2−5.59 (−21.03 to 9.85)0.4891<0.01
 Study quality: middle10−2.03 (−3.60 to −0.47) 0.01 120.33
 Study quality: high3−1.10 (−3.73 to 1.54)0.42200.29
 Intervention duration <12 months7−2.82 (−4.79 to −0.84)] <0.01 160.31
 Intervention duration ≥12 months8−1.88 (−4.67 to 0.90)0.1962<0.01
 Supervision: yes14−2.21 (−4.03 to 0.38) 0.02 510.01
 Supervision: no1
  • Significant p values are indicated in bold.

  • BMI, body mass index; HIIT, high-intensity interval training; MD, mean of differences; MOD, moderate-intensity continuous training; SIT, sprint interval training.