Table 10

International Olympic Committee definitions: types of non-accidental violence in sport266

Psychological abuseA pattern of deliberate, prolonged repeated non-contact behaviours within a power differentiated relationship. This form of abuse is at the core of all other forms
Physical abuseNon-accidental trauma or physical injury caused by punching, beating, kicking, biting, burning or otherwise harming an athlete. This could include forced or mandated inappropriate physical activity (eg, age inappropriate or physique inappropriate training loads; when injured or in pain), forced alcohol consumption or systematic doping practices
Sexual abuseAny conduct of a sexual nature, whether non-contact, contact or penetrative, where consent is coerced/manipulated or is not or cannot be given
NeglectFailure of parents or caregivers to meet a child’s physical and emotional needs or failure to protect a child from exposure to danger. This definition equally applies to coaches and athlete entourages