Table 1

Baseline upper body muscle strength (UBMS), lower body muscle strength (LBMS), lower body muscle function (LBMF) and aerobic fitness of patients in the exercise and control group

Baseline values nExercise (n=1944)nControl (n=1571)
Mean (SD)Mean (SD)
UBMS, mean (SD)
 Chest press (1RM)65835.2 (16.1)51232.4 (16.8)
 Max elbow flexion (Nm)15030.5 (12.1)7228.7 (13.0)
 Grip strength (kg)37835.3 (10.7)29036.4 (9.8)
 Chest press (No)80.0 (0.0)70.3 (0.8)
 Sum upper extremity (N)40152.7 (46.8)39155.4 (54.7)
 Sum of best right and left grip strength (kg)6869.6 (23.1)3372.4 (21.4)
 Row and shoulder press (stage)1347.0 (2.8)606.3 (3.6)
LBMS, mean (SD)
 Leg press (1RM)498104.0 (42.9)43099.6 (44.3)
 Leg extension (1RM)16054.1 (26.1)8256.4 (27.7)
 Max quadriceps torque (Nm)268105.5 (35.0)309103.9 (36.4)
 Max knee extension (Nm)15369.5 (19.7)7763.8 (17.6)
 Leg press (No)811.1 (7.6)716.3 (6.2)
 Sum lower extremity (N)40185.5 (54.8)39186.7 (63.2)
LBMF, mean (SD)
 Chair rise (s)33912.2 (3.2)27312.0 (3.1)
 Sit to stand (No)40617.5 (5.2)23016.2 (4.2)
Aerobic fitness, mean (SD)
 VO2peak (mL/kg/min)82423.1 (6.8)67723.7 (7.5)
 Endurance test (s)168773.5 (536.2)85684.8 (515.8)
 12 min walk test (m)99997.4 (211.0)100975.4 (234.6)
 6 min walk test (m)66505.6 (107.5)64499.0 (118.5)
 400 m walk test (sec)190273.7 (55.2)128271.3 (46.6)
 Modified Balke test (sec)69375.1 (284.4)33351.1 (289.7)
 Step test (HR)117122.5 (16.1)46115.2 (14.7)
  • 1RM, one-repetition maximum; AE, aerobic exercise; N, Newton; Nm, newton*metre; No, number of repetitions; RE, resistance exercise; t, time; VO2peak, peak oxygen consumption.