Table 1

Overall characteristics of available evidence from randomised controlled trials on exercise interventions and medications

EnduranceDynamic resistanceIsometric resistanceCombination exercise*ACE-IARBβ-blockerCCBDiuretic
Number of trials†135481231573663946
Mean age in years50.848.551.954.054.455.052.152.355.0
Proportion female59%60%47%75.4%41%39%47%N/A‡43%
Mean baseline SBP (mmHg)134125129135157156160N/A‡158
Mean enrolment (range)58 (15-464)35 (15-96)30 (15-48)65 (16-387)174 (14-625)292 (40–1369)139 (7–1092)185 (15-397)188 (24–2776)
Years covered1976–20181987–20181992–20182001–20171983–20021995–20041968–20081988–20031978–2009
  • *N/A: not sufficient information reported in meta-analysis report and supplementary material.

  • †Number of trials does not add up to total number of RCTs included in the analysis, as some RCTs included more than one class of antihypertensive medications or one type of exercise interventions.

  • ‡Combination of endurance exercise and dynamic resistance training.

  • ACE-I, angiotensin- converting enzyme inhibitor; ARB, angiotensin-2 receptor blocker; CCB, calcium channel blocker; RCTs, randomised controlled trials; SBP, systolic blood pressure.