Table 2

Characteristics of studies included in the meta-analysis on the association between TV-viewing and cardiovascular and cancer mortality.

ReferenceCountry; study and participant characteristicsYears of follow-upMortality number of casesCase ascertainmentCovariates adjusted for in original publicationsHarmonised exposures for meta-analyses
Dunstan et al 19 Australia; The Australian Diabetes, obesity and Lifestyle Study; 8800 men and women; ≥25 years6.6 yearsCVD, 87; cancer,125Australian NDI and classified using ICDAge, sex, education, BMI, smoking (current/ex-smoker), total energy intake, alcohol, waist circumference, hypertension, total cholesterol, HDL, triglycerides, glucose tolerance and undiagnosed and known diabetes TV-time: none and <1=1; 1–2=2; 3–4=3 and >5 hour/day=4.
MET-hour/week: walking=hour/week*3.3 METS; MPA=hour/week*4.0 METS; VPA=hour/week*7 METS. MET-hour/week summed and stratified into quartiles
Wijndaele et al 20 UK, European Prospective Investigation into cancer and Nutrition Study; 13 197 men and women; 45–79 years9.5 yearsCVD, 323; cancer, 570Office of National Statistics (UK) and classified using ICDAge, sex, education, smoking, alcohol consumption, antihypertensive medication, medication for dyslipidaemia, baseline history of diabetes, family history of CVD and cancer TV-time: <1=1; 1–2 and 2–3=2; 3–4=3 and ≥4 hour/day=4
MET-hour/week: based on duration and frequency of recreational physical activity MET-hour/week was calculated, summed and stratified into quartiles
Matthews et al 11 USA; NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study; 240 814 men and women; 50–71 years8.5 yearsCVD, 4684; cancer, 7652Social Security Administration and the NDIAge, sex, race, education, BMI, smoking and diet TV-time: none and <1=1; 1–2=2; 3–4=3 and >5 hour/day=4
MET-hour/week: never, rarely, weekly but <1=0*4.0 METS; 1–3=1*4 METS; 4–7=4*4.0METS and >7 hour/week=7*4.0 METS. Categorised into four groups equal to Q1–Q4
Kim et al 14 USA; Multiethnic Cohort Study; 1 34 596 men and women; 45–75 years13.7 yearsCVD, 6535; cancer, 6697Death certificate linked to NDI and classified using ICDAge, sex race/ethnicity, education, smoking history, history of diabetes or hypertension, energy intake and alcohol consumption TV-time: never and <1=1, 1–2=2, 3–4=3; 5–6, 7–10 and ≥11 hour/day=4
MET-hour/week: MVPA=hour/week*4.0 METS; Strenuous sports=hour/week*7.2 METS. MET-hour/week summed and stratified into quartiles
Matthews et al 15 USA; Southern Community Cohort Study; 63 308 men and women; 40–79 years6.4 yearsCVD, 1376; cancer, 1227Social Security Administration and the and NDI classified using ICDAge, sex, source of enrolment, race, education, income, marital status, occupational status, comorbid conditions, alcohol consumption, smoking history, BMI and sleep duration TV-time: <1=1; 1–2=2; 3–4=3 and ≥5 hour/day=4
MET-hour/week: based on duration of walking and moderate or vigorous sports. MET-hour/week calculated, summed and stratified into quartiles.
  • BMI, body mass index; CVD, cardiovascular disease; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; ICD, international classification of diseases; MET, metabolic equivalents; MPA, moderate physical activity; MVPA, moderate and vigorous physical activity; NDI, national death index; PAR-Q, physical activity readiness questionnaire; VPA, vigorous physical activity.