Table 5

Effect of recreational football on resting heart rate and muscular fitness with modifying effects for type of control group, gender, age, length of training intervention and training frequency

Resting heart rate (beats/min)Muscular fitness, CMJ (cm)
Effect size
(95% CI)
±95% CLMagnitude-based inferenceEffect size
(95% CI)
±95% CLMagnitude-based inference
Type of control
 No exercises6.03 (4.43 to 7.46)2.0Most likely extremely largely beneficial2.27 (1.29 to 3.25)0.7Most likely very largely beneficial
 Running group0.57 (−1.48 to 2.62)2.2Unclear0.28 (−1.05 to 1.61)1.4Unclear
 Zumba group−1.06 (−3.40 to 1.28)2.5Possibly moderately harmful
 Male5.06 (2.48 to 7.64)1.7Most likely extremely largely beneficial1.48 (0.20 to 2.75)1.2Very likely largely beneficial
 Female2.95 (0.76 to 5.14)2.1Very likely very largely beneficial0.63 (−0.72 to 1.97)1.4Unclear
Age (years)
 18–453.19 (0.95 to 5.43)2.1Very likely very largely beneficial0.92 (−1.07 to 2.77)0.7Unclear
 45–655.66 (2.14 to 9.18)3.2Most likely extremely largely beneficial−0.01 (−1.03 to 1.01)1.0Unlikely trivially harmful
 >656.00 (4.34 to 7.66)2.4Most likely extremely largely beneficial1.63 (0.48 to 2.78)2.7Very likely largely beneficial
Length of training intervention
 ≤12 weeks1.99 (−2.09 to 6.08)4.3Unclear0.09 (−1.86 to 2.03)2.1Unclear
 >12 weeks4.70 (2.76 to 6.65)1.5Most likely extremely largely beneficial1.72 (0.77 to 2.66)0.6Most likely largely beneficial
Training frequency
 ≤2 weeks4.58 (2.10 to 7.07)1.5Most likely extremely largely beneficial1.56 (0.00 to 3.12)1.6Likely largely beneficial
 >2 weeks3.36 (1.13 to 5.59)2.0Very likely very largely beneficial1.05 (−0.15 to 2.25)1.2Likely moderately beneficial
  • 95%CI, Confidence interval at 95%; ±95%CL, Confidence limit at 95% .