Table 7

Effect of recreational football on lean body mass and fat mass with modifying effects for type of control group, gender, age, length of training intervention and training frequency

Lean body mass (kg)Fat mass (kg)
Effect size
(95% CI)
±95% CLMagnitude-based inferenceEffect size
(95% CI)
±95% CLMagnitude-based inference
Type of control
 No exercises0.51 (0.03 to 0.99)0.48Possibly moderately beneficial1.72 (0.86 to 2.58)0.56Most likely largely beneficial
 Running group0.20 (−0.40 to 0.79)0.33Very unlikely small harmful−0.41 (−1.24 to 0.42)0.87Possibly small harmful
 Zumba group0.05 (−2.30 to 2.39)2.50Unclear0.35 (−1.54 to 2.24)2.00Unclear
 Male0.12 (−0.48 to 0.71)0.63Very unlikely trivially harmful1.33 (0.61 to 2.04)1.90Very likely largely beneficial
 Female0.59 (0.16 to 1.02)0.40Possibly small beneficial0.74 (−0.17 to 1.65)0.93Possibly moderately beneficial
Age (years)
 18–450.56 (0.11 to 1.00)0.43Possibly small beneficial0.68 (−0.31 to 1.67)1.00Possibly moderately beneficial
 45–650.28 (−0.73 to 1.29)1.10Unclear1.63 (1.00 to 2.27)0.66Most likely largely beneficial
 >650.20 (−0.73 to 1.13)0.99Unlikely small beneficial0.58 (−0.56 to 1.72)0.23Unclear
Length of training intervention
 ≤12 weeks−0.02 (−1.31 to 1.28)1.30Unlikely trivially harmful1.45 (0.41 to 2.49)0.97Very likely largely beneficial
 >12 weeks0.46 (0.10 to 0.82)0.35Unlikely small beneficial0.88 (0.16 to 1.59)0.69Likely moderately beneficial
Training frequency
 ≤2 weeks0.46 (0.08 to 0.84)0.37Unlikely small beneficial−0.32 (−0.86 to 0.21)0.19Unlikely small harmful
 >2 weeks0.43 (0.08 to 0.77)0.17Unlikely small beneficial1.65 (0.85 to 2.68)0.66Most likely largely beneficial
  • 95%CI, Confidence interval at 95%; ±95%CL, Confidence limit at 95%.