Table 8

GRADE quality of evidence of included studies and relevant outcomes

Certainty assessmentPatients (n)EffectCertaintyImportance
Studies (n)Study designRisk of biasInconsistencyIndirectnessImprecisionOther considerationsRecreational footballOther exercise and controlRelative
(95% CI)
Absolute
(95% CI)
Systolic blood pressure OVERALL (follow-up: range 12–54 weeks; scale from 110 to 151)
17Randomised trialsNot seriousNot seriousNot seriousNot seriousPublication bias strongly suspected*457453MD 4.4 mm Hg lower
(7.6 lower to 1.1 lower)
⨁⨁⨁◯
MODERATE
Diastolic blood pressure OVERALL (follow-up: range 12–54 weeks; scale from 58 to 97)
17Randomised trialsNot seriousNot seriousNot seriousNot seriousPublication bias strongly suspected*294484MD 3.2 mm Hg lower
(5.3 lower to 1.1 lower)
⨁⨁⨁◯
MODERATE
Resting heart rate OVERALL (follow-up: range 12–54 weeks; scale from: 51 to 80)
15Randomised trialsNot seriousSerious†Not seriousNot seriousPublication bias strongly suspected*245330MD 5.7 bpm lower
(8.3 lower to 3.1 lower)
⨁⨁◯◯
LOW
CRITICAL
Body mass index OVERALL (follow-up: range 12–54 weeks; scale from 22.5 to 35)
19Randomised trialsNot seriousNot seriousNot seriousNot seriousNone463421MD 0.3 kg/m2 lower
(0.6 lower to 0.1 lower)
⨁⨁⨁⨁
HIGH
Body mass OVERALL (follow-up: range 12–54 weeks; scale from 65 to 100)
19Randomised trialsNot seriousNot seriousNot seriousNot seriousNone557502MD 2.1 kg lower
(5.4 lower to 0.8 lower)
⨁⨁⨁⨁
HIGH
Lean body mass OVERALL (follow-up: range 12–54 weeks; scale from 38 to 67)
19Randomised trialsNot seriousNot seriousNot seriousNot seriousNone573521 0.4 kg higher
(0.1 higher to 0.8 higher)
⨁⨁⨁⨁
HIGH
Fat mass OVERALL (follow-up: range 12–54 weeks; scale from 19 to 38)
19Randomised trialsNot seriousSerious†Not seriousNot seriousPublication bias strongly suspected*576522MD 1.2 kg lower
(1.7 lower to 0.6 lower)
⨁⨁◯◯
LOW
CRITICAL
Muscular fitness OVERALL (follow-up: range 12–54 weeks; scale from 11.5 to 49.4)
10Randomised trialsNot seriousVery serious†Not seriousNot seriousPublication bias strongly suspected*170227MD 2.5 cm higher
(0.9 higher to 4.1 higher)
⨁◯◯◯
VERY LOW
Low-density lipoproteins OVERALL (follow-up: range 12–54 weeks; scale from 2.3 to 3.7)
10Randomised trialsNot seriousNot seriousNot seriousNot seriousNone273214MD 0.2 mmol/l lower
(0.4 lower to 0.1 lower)
⨁⨁⨁⨁
HIGH
Total cholesterol OVERALL (follow-up: range 12–54 weeks; scale from 3.2 to 5.9)
9Randomised trialsNot seriousNot seriousNot seriousNot seriousNone521203MD 0.1 mmol/l lower
(0.3 lower to 0.1 higher)
⨁⨁⨁⨁
HIGH
Triglycerides OVERALL (follow-up: range 12–54 weeks; scale from 0.7 to 3.7)
8Randomised trialsNot seriousNot seriousNot seriousNot seriousNone227183MD 0.1 mmol/l lower
(0.2 lower to 0)
⨁⨁⨁⨁
HIGH
Fasting glucose OVERALL (follow-up: range 12–54 weeks; scale from 4.8 to 8.8)
9Randomised trialsNot seriousNot seriousNot seriousNot seriousNone245193MD 0.1 mmol/l lower
(0.4 lower to 0.3 higher)
⨁⨁⨁⨁
HIGH
Glucose tolerance OVERALL (follow-up: range 12–54 weeks; scale from 24 to 69)
5Randomised trialsNot seriousNot seriousNot seriousNot seriousNone11678MD 0.6 mmol/l higher
(0.2 lower to 1.1 higher)
⨁⨁⨁⨁
HIGH
  • *Significant result (P<0.10) of Egger’s test for funnel plot asymmetry.

  • †Assumption of large heterogeneity.

  • GRADE, Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations; MD, mean difference.