Table 6

Effect of recreational football on body mass index and body mass with modifying effects for type of control group, gender, age, length of training intervention and training frequency

Body mass index (kg/m2)Body mass (kg)
Effect size
(95% CI)
±95% CLMagnitude-based inferenceEffect size
(95% CI)
±95% CLMagnitude-based inference
Type of control
 No exercises0.28 (−0.12 to 0.67)0.41Possibly small beneficial0.70 (−0.29 to 1.68)1.0Unlikely small beneficial
 Running group−0.12 (−0.54 to 0.30)0.45Unlikely trivially harmful−0.21 (−1.34 to 0.92)1.2Very unlikely small harmful
 Zumba group−0.40 (−1.34 to 0.54)0.99Possibly small harmful0.09 (−2.58 to 2.75)2.9Unlikely trivially harmful
 Male0.54 (0.15 to 0.93)0.37Likely small beneficial1.64 (0.42 to 2.87)1.2Likely largely beneficial
 Female−0.19 (−0.50 to 0.13)0.33Unlikely trivially harmful−0.14 (−0.94 to 0.67)0.9Very unlikely trivially harmful
Age (years)
 18–450.02 (−0.36 to 0.41)0.42Very unlikely trivially harmful−0.17 (−1.03 to 0.68)0.9Very unlikely trivially harmful
 45–650.02 (−0.63 to 0.67)0.69Unlikely trivially harmful1.08 (−0.47 to 2.63)1.6Possibly moderately beneficial
 >650.50 (−0.03 to 1.03)0.53Possibly small beneficial1.52 (−0.13 to 3.17)1.7Possibly largely beneficial
Length of training intervention
 ≤12 weeks0.46 (−0.24 to 1.13)0.71Possibly small beneficial1.04 (−0.98 to 3.06)2.1Unclear
 >12 weeks0.03 (−0.24 to 0.30)0.29Most unlikely trivially beneficial0.32 (−0.39 to 1.04)0.8Most unlikely small harmful
Training frequency
 ≤2 weeks0.01 (−0.27 to 0.29)0.31Very unlikely trivially harmful0.15 (−0.60 to 0.90)0.8Most likely trivially beneficial
 >2 weeks0.39 (−0.13 to 0.92)0.54Possibly small beneficial1.48 (−0.07 to 3.03)1.6Possibly largely beneficial
  • 95%CI, Confidence interval at 95%; ±95%CL, Confidence limit at 95% .