Table 4

Effect of recreational football on systolic and diastolic blood pressure with modifying effects for type of control group, gender, age, length of training intervention and training frequency

Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg)Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg)
Effect size
(95% CI)
±95% CLMagnitude-based inferenceEffect size
(95% CI)
±95% CLMagnitude-based inference
Type of control
 No exercises4.20 (1.87 to 6.53)1.7Most likely extremely largely beneficial3.89 (2.33 to 5.44)1.3Most likely very largely beneficial
 Running group−0.75 (−4.24 to 2.74)3.7Possibly moderately harmful2.21 (−0.81 to 5.23)3.1Possibly largely beneficial
 Zumba group−0.71 (−6.32 to 4.91)6.0Possibly moderately harmful0.54 (−2.69 to 3.77)3.4Unclear
 Male2.25 (0.21 to 4.30)2.0Possibly very largely beneficial3.98 (2.32 to 5.64)1.1Most likely very largely beneficial
 Female4.17 (1.15 to 7.19)2.8Very likely extremely largely beneficial2.28 (0.82 to 3.75)1.9Likely very largely beneficial
Age (years)
 18–451.23 (−1.32 to 3.77)2.7Unclear2.49 (0.70 to 4.28)1.7Likely very largely beneficial
 45–655.69 (2.97 to 8.41)2.3Most likely extremely largely beneficial3.99 (2.16 to 5.83)1.3Most likely very largely beneficial
 >651.02 (−8.32 to 10.35)10.0Unclear0.31 (−4.67 to 5.29)5.3Unclear
Length of training intervention
 ≤12 weeks0.67 (−1.90 to 3.24)13.0Unclear2.15 (0.46 to 3.83)1.6Likely very largely beneficial
 >12 weeks4.59 (2.46 to 6.72)1.5Most likely extremely largely beneficial3.63 (2.14 to 5.12)1.2Most likely very largely beneficial
Training frequency
 ≤2 weeks2.77 (0.78 to 4.77)1.8Likely very largely beneficial1.96 (0.47 to 3.45)1.4Likely largely beneficial
 >2 weeks3.71 (0.69 to 6.73)2.9Likely very largely beneficial4.01 (2.48 to 5.54)1.6Most likely extremely large beneficial
Type of hypertension
 Normotensive1.80 (−0.04 to 3.65)1.8Possibly largely beneficial1.21 (0.11 to 2.32)1.1Possibly largely beneficial
 Prehypertensive4.36 (0.02 to 8.70)4.3Likely extremely largely beneficial5.52 (3.51 to 7.54)2.2Most likely extremely largely beneficial
 Mild hypertensive7.97 (5.03 to 10.91)2.6Most likely extremely largely beneficial6.53 (3.81 to 9.25)1.6Most likely extremely largely beneficial
  • 95%CI, Confidence interval at 95%; ± 95%CL, Confidence limit at 95%.