Table 3

Changes in the primary and key secondary outcomes during and after the intervention in the intention-to-treat population

Estimated mean difference versus CONP value versus other exercise groups
CON (n=18)BIKE (n=34)MOD (n=39)VIG (n=38)BIKEMOD
versus MODversus VIGversus VIG
Peripheral insulin sensitivity
 Metabolic clearance rate of glucose, mL/min/pmolinsulin/L*†
  3 months0.68 (95% CI 0.59 to 0.78)8% (95% CI 9% to 28%)0.3814% (95% CI 3% to 33%)0.1224% (95% CI 6% to 46%)0.0090.480.060.17
  6 months0.66 (95% CI 0.57 to 0.76)20% (95% CI 1% to 43%)0.03717% (95% CI 0% to 37%)0.05326% (95% CI 7% to 47%)0.0050.710.560.28
Cardiorespiratory fitness
 VO2peak, mL/kg/min*
  3 months29.3 (95% CI 27.4 to 31.1)4.4 (95% CI 2.1 to 6.7)<0.0012.2 (95% CI 0.1 to 4.3)0.0414.0 (95% CI 1.8 to 6.2)<0.0010.020.710.047
  6 months28.5 (95% CI 26.4 to 30.6)4.9 (95% CI 2.2 to 7.5)<0.0013.4 (95% CI 1.0 to 5.8)0.0065.8 (95% CI 3.3 to 8.4)<0.0010.190.440.026
Intra-abdominal adipose tissue
 Mass, g*
  3 months2080 (95% CI 1922 to 2239)−192 (95% CI 329 to −54)0.007−167 (95% CI 292 to −41)0.01−193 (95% CI 327 to −58)0.0060.660.990.64
  6 months2195 (95% CI 2022 to 2369)−323 (95% CI 491 to −155)<0.001−303 (95% CI 456 to −151)<0.001−420 (95% CI 586 to −255)<0.0010.780.210.096
  • Presented results are estimates obtained from the linear mixed models used for the analysis. Data are presented as estimated means (95% CIs) for CON and as estimated mean differences from CON (95% CIs) and p values for BIKE, MOD and VIG. Additionally, p values for comparisons between exercise groups at are listed.

  • *Adjusted for gender.

  • †Data were transformed for analysis and results have been back transformed for presentation.

  • BIKE, active commuting group; CON, control group; MOD, moderate intensity exercise group; VIG, vigorous intensity exercise group; VO2peak, peak oxygen uptake.