0–6 monthsBIKE (n=20)MOD (n=33)VIG (n=31)
Exercise intervention duration, days190 (181; 198)188 (182; 196)188 (183; 198)
Exercise frequency, exercise days/week4.4 (4.0; 4.9)4.7 (4.2; 4.9)4.6 (3.5; 4.9)
Compliance, % of prescribed days88 (80; 97)94 (84; 99)92 (69; 98)
Exercise duration, min/exercise day42 (38; 53)54 (48; 60)*37 (33; 41)*†
Exercise energy expenditure, kcal/exercise day
 Women322 (315; 355)322 (294; 371)300 (275; 322)
 Men473 (426; 501)471 (384; 504)428 (370; 499)
Total exercise energy expenditure, % prescribed kcal94 (90; 99)91 (86; 109)85 (65; 97)(†)§
Participants combusting <25% of prescribed kcal
 0–3 months, n012
 3–6 months, n127
 0–6 months, n006
Exercise intensity, %VO2peak reserve55 (47; 59)50 (47; 52)67 (58; 71)‡†
Exercise intensity, MET5.3 (4.6; 6.4)4.9 (4.3; 5.5)6.1 (5.0; 7.1)*†
Heart rate reserve, %59 (53; 62)52 (49; 56)68 (64; 72)*†
  • Data are presented as mean (SD) or median (25th centile; 75th centile). 

  • *P<0.05 compared with BIKE, †p<0.001 compared with BIKE, ‡p<0.001 compared with MOD; §p<0.05 compared with MOD, () indicate p=0.05–0.10.

  • %VO2peak-reserve, percentage of peak oxygen uptake-reserve; BIKE, active commuting group; MET, metabolic equivalent; MOD, moderate intensity exercise group; VIG, vigorous intensity exercise group.