Table 1

Examples of personal, environmental and task constraints interacting at different levels and timescales. The timescale may vary: for example, anthropometric variables may change faster (eg, timescale of months) during puberty

Timescale Constraints
Personal Environmental Task
Fraction of a secondStretch-shortening cycleBall positionPerceived possibilities of action
SecondsAttention focusReferee decisionOpponent’s actions
MinutesAcute fatigueOpponents tacticsCoach instruction
HoursGoal to win the match, moodTemperatureStrategy
DaysMotivationSocial pressureWorkload specificity
WeeksStrengthRank scoreTraining intensity
MonthsOvertraining syndromeSeasons, climateCalendar of competitions
YearsAnthropometryFan’s supportSports rules